IJOART Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2015 Edition

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An Examination of the Perception and Patronage of Traditional Medicine in Kaduna State, Nigeria[]

This paper presents findings on the Perception and Patronage of Traditional Medicine in Kaduna State Nigeria. The aim of the study is to examine the perception and patronage of traditional medicine in Kaduna state. Data from the study was derived from the administration of a structured Questionnaire, Focus group discussion, In-depth interview and data from herbal clinic records. Data were collected from a questionnaire survey of a sample of 400 respondents of the study area. Descriptive statistics, the ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, regression analysis and satisfaction index were the techniques used to summarize the data and test the hypotheses. On links between need for diagnosis and patronage of traditional medicine facilities 3.2% patronize traditional healer for spiritual diagnosis while 2.2% did not. It means this group of persons patronizes other healthcare facilities for diagnosis. Also, the result shows that 9.5% and 82.2% of the respondents patronize the traditional healers for diagnosis of psychological and pathological problems. In addition, respondents with other health problems such as infertility among others patronize traditional healers for diagnosis. In concise, the result indicates that majority of the respondents patronize traditional healers for diagnosis of pathological problems.


Today, the safest, most profitable hospitals are run by those who have their finger on the pulse of ther buildings’ equipment and systems,identifying problems before they negatively affect their hospital.Critical equipment failure brings unexpected costs and the possible loss of revenuegenerating services.It can significantly impact patient care/satisfaction and employee safety, while increasing exposure to litigation and negative public relations.

Status of Biodiversity in Mining Area of Kamatagi (North Karnataka, INDIA) A Case Study[]

Unchecked population growth and anthropocentric causes including mining led to devastation of habitat, loss of biodiversity, shift or change, or extinction of species of flora & fauna. One such study was conducted near Kamatagi (North Karnataka) that lies on low profile hills of Western Ghats. Quarterly survey for flora & fauna including physicochemical factors and socio-economic survey studies have suggested a shift or change in species composition in mined area in par with un-mined (natural ) habitat. There was a general trend in the dominance of natural/ wild varieties of plants in un-mined region than in the mining belt. It reflected a situation of habitat fragmentation and loss of native plants. The mined area however has prevalence of cultivable/ornamental plant species. An analyses of fauna indicated a least variability & differences in species composition. Insects among invertebrates and aves & mammals among vertebrates have dominated the rest of animal groups in mined as well as un-mined regions The reasons for sparse distribution & stunted growth of trash/wild plants in un-mined region concurrent to rich growth of cultivable plants in mining belt is discussed. Recent insights in biodiversity conservation and effective nurturing of both biodiversity as well as mining is also discussed in this paper.

Increasing Security Reliability in E-Commerce Platform through Customer Tracker and Code Inclusion[]

E-commerce is fast growing media by which businesses and other market forms are achieved without the physical presence of the individuals in the business. Some exiting e-commerce platforms suffer from file inclusion vulnerability which allows an attacker to include a file, usually through a script on the web server and this occurs due to the use of user-supplied input with weak validation. These platform output the contents of the file, execute codes on the client side, web servers while creating the possibility of cross site scripting (XSS), denial of service (DoS) and data theft/manipulation. This paper developed a customer tracker and code inclusion analytics (CT-CIA) that monitors the http request of the customer as well as the browser system details. When these are collected, it is sent to the e-commerce analytics servers in the form of a long list of parameters attached to a single-pixel image request. The data contained in the request is the data sent to the e-commerce analytics server, which then generates the processed inclusion code for reliable customer transaction. The flowchart descriptions and process procedures are detailed while arguing that the approach offers excellent protection against some methodologies in terms of cost, flexibility, reliability, and intelligence.


RC structure and Floating column structure are typical features in the modern multi-storey constructions in urban India. Such features are highly undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas; this has been verified in numerous experiences of strong shaking during the past earthquakes like Bhuj 2001. In this study an attempt is made to reveal the effects of floating column & rc building effected with sesmic forces. For this purpose Push over analysis is adopted because this analysis will yield performance level of building for design capacity displacement) carried out up to failure, it helps determination of collapse load and ductility capacity of the structure.

A Comparison of National Orthometric Heights with DGPS/Leveling and ITRF00 Datum with WGS84 (EGM08) Geoid[]

Today, the recent global Earth's gravity model, EGM08, is successfully used for different purposes in Geosciences. In this paper, EGM08-based geoid model of the Deferential Global Position System (DGPS). The national orthometric heights are compared with the (DGPS) /leveling data that is obtained from ten points in the Babylon province in the middle of Iraq. This study will show that considering the truncation bias of EGM08 will reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the differences between the orthometric heights and DGPS/leveling data The standard deviation (SD) by about 1.8cm., the differences of DGPS/leveling with EGM08 which indicates that EGM08 may be used for orthometric height determination with an accuracy of ˂ 2 cm. In the middle of Iraq region and offers a reasonably good transformation platform from ellipsoid to local datum. However, local determination of Geoid is necessary for better accuracy of the orthometric height from DGPS.


Aristotle, Plato and Dewey propose their views on ethics. This paper focuses on the three philosophers’ perspectives towered ethics. This paper also examines Ethics and Morals, Pre-Enlightenment Ethics, The Meaning of the Good in John Dewey and Aristotle, The Unity of the Virtues, Moral in Education, Dewey and Ethics, and Plato and Ethics.


Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminum, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are of rusty red coloration, because of high iron oxide content. A lot of industrial waste such as baggasse ash, sugarcane ash, municipal solid waste, GRS, cold reclaimed asphalt (RAP), Aircanut coir, sawdust ash, ironstone, tyre ash, bio-enzyme, coconut shell/leaf asphalt ash, kernel shell and corncob ash. This shows that there is great potentials in industrial waste stabilization of laterites. Therefore a large scale stabilization with industrial waste should be embarked by various construction companies and agencies involved in road construction. Moreover, it can be used as a partial replacement for chemical stabilization in order to reduce the enormous cost of chemical stabilization.

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