IJOART Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2014 Edition

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Use of fungi in bioremediation of palm oil mill effluent (POME).[]

This work is aimed at assessing the bioremediation potentials of Candida rugosa and Geotricum candidium in Palm oil mill effluents. The physicochemical qualities of the POME sample used in this work showed average COD (105000 mg/l), BOD (16300mg/l), oil and grease (7515 mg/l), TDS (8020.25 mg/l) and TSS (18740.25mg/l). Geotricum candidium and Candida rugosa were among eleven fungal strains isolated from palm oil mill effluent, two of which only had the highest ability to degrade oil and grease. They were identified and used for bioremediation of the effluent by optimizing some of the cultural conditions during remediation process. Amongst the four nitrogen sources (Soybean, groundnut meal, urea and yeast extract) used soybean best supported bioremediation of palm oil mill effluent by both Candia rugosa and Geotrichum candidium with BOD of 71.8 and 79.7%, COD 80.7% and 49.1% respectively. Similarly oil and grease reduction was 85.2% in candida rugosa and 83.6% in Geotrichum treated POME. Studies on the effect of carbon source on the bioremediation of POME showed that Candida rugosa tremendously used glucose that other carbon source with 81.5%( BOD), 92.1%(COD) , 84.9% (O&G) and 83.8%(TSS) reductions. This may be attributed to its importance in the initiation of fungal growth. Corn starch also best supported bioremediation using Geotrichum candidium with 74.5% (BOD), 85 %( COD), 70%( O&G ) and 83.5%( TSS) removal. Cassava starch showed the least support in both fungal degraded POME. The importance of agitation in cell growth will never be emphasized hence the use of different agitation speed in this study. Maximum organic load reduction was obtained at 300rpm with BOD (77.6%) ,COD (89.9%), O&G(86.9%) and TSS(90.5%) reduction in Candida rugosa treated POME while 250rpm agitation speed showed BOD( 87.4%), COD(91.9%), O&G(86.2%) and TSS(94.3%) reduction in Geotrichum candidium treated POME . This work shows bioremediation potentials of Candida rugosa and Geotricum candidium in the treatment of POME , therefore suggest that these fungi can be used to reduce pollution effect caused by indiscriminate disposal of this effluent in the environment.

River Dynamism And Quasi - Natural Disaster Of Kedernath Area, Uttarakhand[]

The forgoing paper bespeak about the Geomorphologt and related hazards of Kedernath area, Uttarakhand. Development of morphological aspects is a result of the interaction of the hydraulics of flow and factors like velocity, discharge, roughness shear, channel configuration. The present paper is concerned with the detail study of the glacio-fluvio-geomorphological analysis about the development of glacier valleys of different ages with their particular depositions regarding the time and space. Mandakini originates from the Chorabari Glacier near Kedarnath in Uttarakhand, India. Mandakini is fed by Vasukiganga River at Sonprayag. Mandakini joins.Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. Alaknanda then proceeds towards Devaprayag where it joins with Bhagirathi River to form the Ganges River. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a report in 2012 on Managing the Risks to Extreme Events and Disasters , which concluded that even without taking climate change into account, the risk of disasters will continue to increase as more people, infrastructure and businesses - are exposed to weather extremes. The morphology and development of valleys are controlled by some endogenetic and climate. Development of morphological aspects is a result of the interaction of the hydraulics of flow and factors like velocity, discharge, roughness shear, channel configuration. The special emphasis has been given through the paper is the detail analysis of glacier as well as fluvial valley formations with the expansion of time and space. The river has an magnificent litho-tectonic and fluvio-morphological journey from Kedernath to Rudraprayag with a typical landform evolution being considered as Glacier, Peri Glacier, Fluvio-Glacier and Fluvial. The incessant, heavy rainfall over three days, perhaps accompanied by a few cloudburst-type events (which cannot be confirmed), resulted in flash floods and associated landslides. On June 14, the monsoon front was located over eastern India. In fact it was a trifle sluggish compared with the normal progress of the front . But within a day , the front advanced right across Uttar Pradesh and the western regions to cover the entire country by June 15, exactly a month ahead of its normal date of July 15. While the IMD had forecast a rapid advance with the announcement that the monsoon would strike Delhi before the normal scheduled date of June 30, its advance right across to the west just within a day was entirely unexpected. With the advancement of the monsoon, and heavy rainfall was beyond the capacity of water holding capacity of Chorabaru lake which had leads to the devastating flood of Kedernath area. There are two different but reinforcing events that caused the disaster were landslide-induced debris that came from the glaciated area in the north-east and a glacial-related flow that originated from the north-west glacier. From the images, one can distinctly identify the two flows. The damage caused to the Kedarnath region and downstream villages by the natural destruction resulting from unusual meteorological and geophysical processes was undoubtedly greatly enhanced because of the general environmental degradation caused by the massive and unregulated influx of pilgrims year after year, the haphazard development fuelled by tourist traffic, and the unplanned and poor construction of buildings and roads. Given the vulnerability of the region, the town itself has come up in a very dangerous location, points out Petley. Therefore, how much of the destruction in this event was actually man-made is a moot question.

BIG DATA: A New Technology[]

This paper describes the concept of BIG Data. Its definition, when it first time used and came into the IT world. This paper characteristics of big data i.e. volume, velocity, variety have been described. Challenges and business issues have been studied. Since Big data is not a simple concept so its processing is also in many steps so this paper tries to describe these steps in simple language along with its difficulties at each step. At last, the software which are been currently used i.e. Hadoop, MongoDB areexplained in short.

Analysis of WiMAX[]

When a WiMAX network has no downlink or uplink data, it will enter either Sleep Mode or Idle Mode, both of which aim to trim down the power utilization of the mobile station. Upon the availability of data, the serving base station will awaken the mobile station. The mobile station then establishes a connection with the base station via initial ranging. Ranging parameters are then adjusted for the connection. Finally, the service flow is reactivated for data transfer, and the mobile station returns to the normal operation stage. Depending on whether the serving base station has the necessary information, the mobile station may need to carry out more signaling operations, such as basic capability negotiation, authentication and key management, re-registration, as well as IP connectivity reestablishment. Given the above signaling procedures, attackers may also launch similar signaling attacks to WiMAX base station by triggering unnecessary state transitions that overload the base station with signal processing that leads to Denial of Service(DoS) attack.[1]

R-Peak Detection by Modified Pan-Tompkins Algorithm[]

Electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis and its interpretation are performed by signal processing in majority of the systems. The objective of the ECG signal is diversified and encompasses the enhancement of measurement accuracy. In some cases, the ECG is recorded in peripatetic and exhausting conditions as a result the ECG signals are contaminated by various types of noise, which originates from different physiological process of the body. Thus, noise reduction [1] also plays an important role in ECG signal processing. Sometimes, ECG signal are strongly masked with the noise, in order to remove the noise we have to perform relevant Signal processing. In this paper, R-peaks of recorded ECG signals are detected by using modified PAN- Tompkins algorithm and RR-interval is also calculated which helps in any further classifications.

Heat Transfer Boundary Layer Flow Past an inclined Stretching Sheet in Presence of Magnetic field[]

In the present study the problem of a steady hydro magnetic flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid over an inclined stretching sheet, where the flow is generated due to a linear stretching sheet. Using suitable similarity transformations the governing dimensional partial differential equations of the problem are reduced to dimensionless couple nonlinear ordinary differential equations and are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta fourth-fifth (RK-45) order method along shooting technique. The effects of various parameters on the flow fields are investigated and presented graphically. The results illustrate that velocity profile decrease due to increase of magnetic parameter, Angle of inclination, Prandtl number, Eckert number and Chandrasekhar number while velocity increases for increasing values of Grashof number . On the other hand temperature profile increases in the presence of magnetic parameter, angle of inclination, Prandtl number, Eckert number and Chandrasekhar number while temperature decreases for increasing Grashof number. The results have possible technological applications in liquid-based systems involving stretchable materials. The skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are proportional to rate of change of velocity and temperature gradient respectively which are presented in Tables 1-2.


QWL is more concerned with the overall climate of work has on people as well as organizational effectiveness. Quality is no more a specialized word but has become a necessary and greatest asset to any organization. Maintaining the quality of such human inputs rises from maintaining the quality of work life perfectly. A perfect quality of work life would help the organization. This is an attempt to capitalize the human assets of the organization the traditional approach to HRD is through training of employee. But training has a limit rate in developing the people. People develop not only through training but also through the organization workers the job a person has in the organization also determine his development. HRD include both firm and job environment Employees in general expect and demand more from their employment. In simple terms QWL refers to the extent which the members of an organization find the work environment conductive. It is concerned with improving labour - management co - operation to solve many organizational problems, achieving the desired level of performance and securing greater employee satisfaction. The success of any organization depends on the efficiency of labour are increasing the efficiency. A man happy and a happy working atmosphere makes a happy man to contribute more.

Modelling And Simulation of Spark Ignition Engines[]

The term spark-ignition engine refers to internal combustion engines, usually petrol engines, There the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark from a spark plug. This is in contrast to compression-ignition engines, typically diesel engines, where the heat generated from compression is enough to initiate the combustion process, without needing any external spark.

RFID Based Metro Train System[]

This project is designed to demonstrate the technology used in metro train movement which are used in most of the developed countries. This train is equipped with a controller that enables the automatic stopping of the train from station to station.

Electrostrictive energy in cancer cells - Modelling based on Nyquist Criterion[]

Electrostrictive Energy (ESE) in human cells is a useful diagnostic tool in detection of cancer if it can be measured cost effectively. This paper derives this energy mathematically from results of experimentally verified Capacitance Relaxation (CR) phenomenon of human cells (US patent 5691178, 1997) and establishes the correlation between CR phenomenon and ES energy in cancer cells using Nyquist criterion. The approach is based on the behavior of human cells formed of a bi-layer of highly mobile lipid molecules. The human cells exhibit different dynamic capacitances and associated electrostrictive energy when they are normal and when affected by cancer. Normal cells behave like a dielectric while cancer cells exhibit the characteristics of a composite leaky dielectric. The paper establishes, through modeling, that normal cells behave like first order control systems while cancer cells behave like higher order systems accounting for different ES energy in both cases. This corresponds to the established theory that during the process of DNA synthesis and cell division, changes in the membrane capacitance for the first order system is relatively slower compared to that in cancer cells. This also correlates with the situation where the membrane potential falls during cell division and DNA synthesis in normal cells, the difference being that cell division here leads to carcinogenic changes.

New Provably Secure Blind Signature Scheme With Weil Pairing[]

Blind signature scheme provide the feature that a user is able to get a signature without giving the actual message to the signer. Many Blind signature schemes have been proposed in which security are based on intractability of factoring or DLP (Discrete Logarithm Problem ). In 2010, Fan et al.[11] gave a provably secure randomized blind signature whose security was based on solving ECDLP(Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem). The security of this scheme is improved in order to propose a more secure and efficient scheme. The security of proposed scheme is based on expressing the torsion point of curve into linear combination of its basis points. This is more complicated than solving ECDLP (Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem). Also, the simulation results from AVISPA tools confirm the security analysis of proposed protocol.

Empirical investigation on the application of marketing practices in Micro and Small enterprises (MSEs)[]

The primary aim of this research was to investigate the marketing strategies and practice of Marketing in Micro and Small enterprises (MSEs) for the purpose of identifying, clarifying and evaluating the nature of Marketing practice, persistent marketing problems and the role of marketing in achieving the goal business. Therefore to address the objective of this research project both second and primary data was consulted. The secondary data was consulted from international scientific literatures and journals, text books, reports and web sites. Primary data was collected from selected active MSEs operating in Mekelle city through questionnaire from MSEs in each kifleketemas and focused group discussion will be undertaken with SMEs agency-workers as well as Trade and Industry office on issues related to the topic of the research. After collecting the data descriptive analysis was employed; and SPSS software package will be used as analyzing software tool. The marketing function in MSEs is hindered by constraints such as poor cash flow, lack of marketing expertise, business size, tactical customer- related problems, and strategic customer-related problems. Due to improper implementation of marketing concepts, most MSEs were not effective in achieving their marketing objectives satisfactory and are unable generate higher sales. Successful marketing is driven by innovation, including marketing research that focused on firm-specific characteristics of innovation, and/or responding to changing environmental situation, product innovativeness.

Mixed Convective Boundary Layer Slip Flow Over A Vertical Porous Plate Through A Porous Medium[]

In this work, effects of slip at the boundary on the mixed convective boundary layer flow over a flat plate through a porous medium is considered. The governing partial differential equations were transformed into ordinary differential equations in terms of suitable similarity variable. We employed Galerkin weighted residual method to solve the resulting non-linear equations. The results show the effects of variable viscosity parameter, Brinkman number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number and Darcy number on the flow system.

Variable Viscosity And Non-constant Thermal Conductivity of A Dual Mixed Convection Flows Through A Porous Medium[]

In this work, we examined variable viscosity and non-constant thermal conductivity of a dual mixed convection flows in a vertical channel through a porous medium. We employed Galerkin weighted residual method to solve the resulting non-linear equations. The results show the effects of variable viscosity parameter, thermal conductivity parameter, Brinkman number, Reynolds number, Prandtl number and Darcy number on the flow system.

Incorporation of STP Sludge and Fly ash in Brick Manufacturing: An attempt to save the Environment[]

Brick is one of the most important masonry unit as a building material due to its properties. Many attempts have been made to incorporate wastes into the production of bricks. In this paper we experimentally describe the recycling of the waste products like STP Sludge and Fly ash by incorporating them into bricks. It is a practical solution for problems like cost expenditure on waste management and its effect on environment. The STP sludge and Fly ash is extremely close to brick clay in chemical composition so, it could be a potential substitute for clay bricks. The sewage treatment process generates a sludge that must be disposed-off in an environmentally sound manner. The sludge generated in most of the treatment systems around the world is discharged into the nearest watercourse. Among all disposal options, the use of sludge in producing constructional elements is considered to be the most economic and environmentally sound option. This paper reviews the recycle of sewage treatment plant sludge and Fly ash against fired clay bricks. Bricks so formed have adequate crushing strength, hardness and water absorption.

Multi Touch Gesture Technology for Interactive HCI[]

We propose the combinational use of hand gestures & simulating software which provides an attractive alternative to cumbersome interface devices for human computer interaction (HCI). Many hand gesture recognition methods using visual analysis have been proposed: syntactical analysis, neural networks, the hidden Markov model (HMM). In the pre-processing stage, our approach consists of three different procedures for hand localization, hand tracking and gesture spotting. The hand location procedure detects hand candidate regions on the basis of skin-color and motion. The hand tracking algorithm finds the centroids of the moving hand regions, connects them, and produces a hand trajectory. The gesture spotting algorithm divides the trajectory into real and meaningless segments. To construct a feature database, this approach uses a combined and weighted location, angle and velocity feature codes.

Habitability and Life Parameters in our Solar System[]

The whole spacetime i.e. cosmoverse is divided into various universes. Every universe is traveling due to habitability on its own motion and gravitational attraction towards the other universes similarly every planet travels in our Solar system. Planets are in motion due to their main source Sun. All universes are habitable due to stable cosmoverse. Our universe is habitable because of quantum fields for existing particles and forces. In other universes their quantum fields as well as particles and forces are different from our universe. So everything around us from subatomic particles to Planets of our solar system are structured and constituted according to the quantum state of our universe. It shows that at the time of origin of our Solar System, there would have been other solar systems existed and that was consequences of the gravitational interaction of natural forces outside our solar system. These natural forces are parameters for habitable zone to determine the energy, age and life of all motionary planets traveling within the solar system.

Protection And Control Of Power System-a Review.[]

Modern power systems are being operated closer to their stability margins because of deregulation, competition, and problem of securing capital outlays expansion of existing power system. The conventional method of power system protection and control no longer achieve secured and reliable protection hence given rise for the incorporation of PMU base protection and control which has better wide area monitoring, protection and control. In this paper the protection and control of power system is overviewed, the contingencies obtainable in operational power systems are also overviewed, while the conventional and the most modern state of art of mitigating and controlling of such power system contingencies are explored.

Comparative study of the effectiveness of Amikacin in serum and distilled water[]

A chemical compound acting against life is called antibiotic. Antibiotics are produced by submerged culture method. Antibiotics are the substance produced by various species of microorganisms that suppress the growth of other microorganisms and eventually may destroy them. Antibiotics are the antimicrobial agents.

Corporate Social Responsibilty And Good Governance[]

Though the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and governance (CG) have been evolving for decades, no single all-encompassing meaning has as yet been achieved. This paper seeks to explore the interrelationship between CSR and CG and its Indian context. The paper argues about the implication of these concepts in Indian businesses. The first part of the paper states the increased focus of CG in CSR, and its linkage with business practices. The second part states the recent transformation in the legal norms to be followed by corporate houses, highlighting the essential of good governance. The third part of the paper discusses the prospects and challenges drawn by the stakeholders outlining the success of CSR in 2014.

Investigating The Growth And Transport Of Microorganisms In A Microbe-flooded Bounded Reservoir[]

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a family of processes that involves the use of selected microbes to achieve en-hancement of oil production. The microbial system is carefully designed to produce bioproducts capable of making positive alterations to the inherent rock and fluid properties. The overall efficiency of this technology is hinged on the ability of the injected microbes to multiply and be transported deep into the subject reservoir. This work presents a study on the growth rate and transport of Bacillus Substillis in a bounded reservoir core model, incorporating mathematical models and experimental studies. Results of the experimental study indicate that nutrient concentration is the decisive factor in the growth of the choice bacteria. A Comparison of the growth rate predicted from the logistic growth model and that predicted by the Monod equation is also presented.

Detecting And Automated Reporting of Change in IMEI Number[]

With the rapid growth of GSM telecommunication, special requirements arise in digital forensics to identify mobile phones operating in a GSM network. The International Mobile Equipment Identity number uniquely identifies an individual mobile station. Though IMEI number was designed to uniquely identify mobile device, hackers have invented methods to change IMEI number.This has increased IMEI scams bringing loss to data and property .Thus it is important to stop such thefts. This paper presents brief about IMEI number and GSM networks for which it is designed. Paper also list various methods of changing IMEI number. At the end it also states a solution which can avoid changing IMEI number.

Detection of Suspicious URLs through Vision Techniques in Twitter Stream[]

The primary intention of WARNINGBIRD is to detect the suspicious URLs through correlated redirect chain methodology. It will examine the correlated URL redirect chain and tweet context information to detect the suspicious URLs. But unfortunately, the problem is when the attackers send different individual suspicious URLs it becomes inefficient to identify the suspicious URLs through the correlated redirect chain methodology as in this method it starts identifying the suspicious URLs through the common URLs which were frequently shared.

Anti Electrical Thefting And Trouble Shooting Through Mobile[]

The proposed project work aims on the design and development of electrical energy theft prevention aspect. This project envisages the development of electrical theft identification. Aiming at the disadvantage of current anti-theft technology, a PLC based anti electrical theft monitoring system is proposed in this paper. This design incorporates effective solutions for problems faced by India’s electricity distribution system such as power theft, and transmission line fault. The problem of illegal usage of electricity must be solved electronically, without any human control. PLC will play an important role in placing anti-theft power system. Power theft is prevented by installing HD-PLC-mounted power meters on a high position on power poles, while the amount of power used in each household can still be checked.

Application Of Steady State Analysis To Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) Undergoing Layers In Series[]

Enhanced oil recovery has come to stay over ages and yet more research is made to improve on existing techniques and find better options to them. One of the promising techniques discovered is the Microbial Enhanced Oil recovery, involving the use of microorganisms to alter petrophysical properties of the reservoir and most especially reducing the viscosity of residual oil. A thorough process of petrophysical parameter determination, efficient process execution and analysis is presented in this work. A model is developed incorporating steady state analysis to a reservoir layered in series undergoing MEOR process. The model is validated by adapting it to a reservoir system dosed with two bacteria culture - Bacillus substilis And Pseudomonas sp.

Water Management Strategies to be Adopted in Sri Lanka to Improve Food Productivity to Accommodate the Population Growth[]

Food production in Sri Lanka needs to increase to feed a growing population whereas water for irrigation is getting scarcer. Major challenges Sri Lanka facing today are to save water, increase food productivity and produce more grain with less water. This article analyzes and recommends the ways in which water saving irrigation management is to be practiced to meet these challenges at the field level. The analyses were conducted using actual data collected mostly from Irrigation department and Agriculture department in all the regional offices. Water input can be reduced by reducing ponded water depths to soil saturation or by alternate wetting/drying by following good water management tecneques. Water savings under saturated soil conditions were on average between 20 % and 25 % with yield reductions between 5 % and 8 %. Yields were reduced between 15 % and 45 % when soil water potentials in the root zone were allowed to reach minus 125 mbar to minus 250 mbar. In claye soils, intermittent drying may lead to shrinkage and cracking in the fields, thereby risking increased soil water loss, increased water requirements and decreased water productivity. It therefore does not produce more rice with less water on the same field. Field-level water productivity and yield can only be increased concomitantly by improving total factor productivity or by raising the yield potential. Total rice production can be increased by using water saved in one location to irrigate new land in another location. If this is not done, as strategy of saving water at the field level, potentially threatens total rice production at large in Sri Lanka.

HPLC method development for separation of racemic APIs/API intermediates for scale-up in Varicol process[]

HPLC methods were developed for separation of enantiomers of racemic clopidogrel, lansoprazole, omeprazole, EPB-1 and voriconazole using chiral stationary phases (CSPs). The effect of column loadings and flow rates on the separation profiles in terms of resolution and selectivity were investigated for developing scalable separation processes. In addition, the influence of additives on the separation behavior has been studied. A few of these separations were also scaled up using Varicol technology.

Self Concept and Achievement Motivation of Adolescents and Their Relationship with Academic Achievement[]

The present study was undertaken to study the self concept and achievement motivation of adolescents and their relationship with academic achievement. The sample for the investigation comprises 480 boys and girls of class Xth from various government and non government managed schools within the age range of 16-17 years, from urban and rural areas. One of the findings of the study was that non significant difference was observed in the self concept of the student in gender, locale and management variation. The second finding was in respect of non significant difference in achievement motivation with regard to gender and locale variation. Another finding of the study was the significant difference in the academic achievement of the students with regard to locale and management variation. The study revealed significant relationship between the two variables of self-concept, achievement motivation and academic achievement.

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