IJOART Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2015 Edition

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From time immemorial humans used the sun to dry many things, a process known as sun drying. Sun drying is carried out in the farm, home, industry, laboratory, hospitals and other institutions for a number of reasons. These reasons range from totally eliminating water molecules from the things being dried, i.e. outright drying, like clothes, some farm produce, during building work, and in sculpture to exposing certain electronic materials/components directly to the sun so that the ultra- violet rays from the sun can cause some changes in the component, and in pharmaceutical/chemical industries where certain plants used for pharmaceutical purpose/chemicals are exposed to direct sunlight for a little while to cause some chemical changes in them and even at home sometimes when we open our windows to allow the sun rays to fall into our rooms to eliminate dampness, and allow for proper aeration. When rain falls, it will cause a setback to all the reasons for sun-drying enumerated above, especially when the materials being sun dried are not retrieved quickly. Thus, designing and constructing a device which gives one a heads-up the instant it starts to rain hopefully giving you time to retrieve the materials being sun dried, close your windows, and bring in possession is not only apropos but also absolutely imperative. The rain detector is a device that alerts the user when it is just about to rain. Minute droplets of rain water trigger the alarm, thus, alerting the user that rain is imminent. It is a battery powered device which combines sensors, a buzzer for the alarm system, silicon transistors, capacitor and other components in its circuitry to realize its purpose.

Performance degradation of SRAM cells due to NBTI effects[]

SRAM cells play an important role in today’s world and the impact they have on memory designs is tremendous. Different types of SRAM cells have been designed till date but consistent efforts are still being made to look out for ways to improve their performance. One such thing that affects the performance of the SRAM cells is the NBTI (Negative Bias Temperature Instability). This paper uses a simple 6T SRAM cell to see what exactly NBTI does to these cells and what happens as a result of the same. This paper explains more about what NBTI actually is, how does it arise, how do they change the device behavior or characteristics and what exactly happens to these SRAM cells on account of this effect. Also, apart from the effect of the NBTI on SRAM cells, this paper also shows the leakage current that persists in the SRAM cell while the entire circuit is switched off (standby mode).

Evaluation and prediction of deviation in physico-chemical characteristics of River Ganga[]

Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of Ganga River water were carried out during 2012 to 2013 at Rishikesh (Uttarakhand) with two different Sites i.e. Site 1 (Shivpuri) control Site and Site 2 (Pashulok Barrage), where river flows with loads of pollution from highly commercial areas and waste water discharge in Rishikesh. During investigation maximum Turbidity (404.00±106.00 JTU), Total Solids (802±132 mgl-1), pH (7.78 ± 0.1), Free CO2 (1.8 ±0.1 mgl-1) Biochemical Oxygen Demand (3.36 ± 0.264 mgl-1), Chemical Oxygen Demand (7.94 ± 0.406 mgl-1), phosphorus (0.141 ± 0.050 mgl-1), Nitrate (0.058 ± 0.006 mgl-1), Nitrite (0.012 ± 0.001 mgl-1) and Total Hardness (67.79±7.21 mgl-1), while minimum Dissolved Oxygen (7.70 ± 0.23 mgl-1), Velocity (1.33±0.34 ms-1) and Transparency (0.31±0.23 m) were recorded at Site 2 in comparison with Site 1. The mean values of these parameters were compared with WHO and ISI standards and found significant differences (p < 0.05) in the mean values of Turbidity, Total solids (TS), pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Free CO2 and Total Hardness (TH) with sampling Sites. The results indicated that most of the physico-chemical parameters from Gangetic River System were within or at margin in comparison to permissible limit of ISI and WHO for drinking water and therefore, may be suitable for domestic purposes, but it require attention due to drastic changes in climate and increase in pollution in last decade.

A Spst Based 16x16 Multiplier For High Speed Low Power Applications Using Radix-4 Modified Booth Encoder[]

The major design constraints in any VLSI circuit design is its power dissipation and speed. These entities cannot be optimized simultaneously; improvement of one entity is possible at the expense of one or more others. Power dissipation is recognized as a critical parameter. The objective of a good multiplier is to reduce the power dissipation without compromising with its speed and compactness. In order to save the power consumption it is better to reduce its dynamic power, which is a major part of the total power dissipation. This paper presents a spurious power suppression technique (SPST) for a high speed low-power multiplier which can dramatically reduce the power dissipation of combinational VLSI designs for multimedia/DSP purposes. This paper also discusses the efficiency of SPST over array multiplier in terms of speed and power dissipation. The effectiveness of SPST in various applications such as Efficient multi-Transform Design (ETD) and Versatile Multimedia Functional Unit (VMFU) are also presented. The proposed SPST separates the target designs into two parts, i.e., the most significant part and least significant part (MSP and LSP), and turns off the MSP when it does not affect the computation results to save power and thus minimize the switching power dissipation. In this project we used Xilinx-ISE tool for logical verification and further synthesizing.

Pre-arranged Marriage Among B’laan Secondary Students: Tales Of Joy And Sorrow[]

The purpose of this study was to describe the lives' experiences among B'laan secondary students who are involved in pre-arranged marriage. Phenomenological approach was employed with 14 students. In-depth interview and focus group discussion were conducted which revealed that pre-arranged marriage in B'laan tribes is prevalent and contracted by both bride's and the groom's parents. There were eight major themes emerged as experienced by pre-arranged marriage students such as agony and torment, confined and held captive, contempt, absence of courtship, violence, suffering and deprivation, harmonization, and freedom regained. The participants of the study had different approaches in coping with the experience, through support system, diversion of focus, toleration and acceptance and faith in the Divine. Despite of being married prearranged by their parents, they have their aspirations in life like: literacy, lesson and personal resolve, cultural awakening, exhortations to B'laan girl's/women and personal liberation. Based on the results of the study, it came out that pre-arranged marriage of B'laan secondary female students were found to have particular aspirations pertaining to their marriage, education and career, but lacked confidence in their abilities to create the desired future, which made me conclude that marrying early through pre-arranged marriage is detrimental to their educational attainment.

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