IJOART Volume 5, Issue 7, July 2016 Edition

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Characteristics of Concrete Using Oil Palm Shell as Lightweight Aggregate and Ashment as Binder[]

Concrete has been identified as one of the most common building material with high embodied energy. Investigations on lightweight concrete using oil palm shell (OPS) as coarse aggregate were attempts to find an alternative material to the use of crushed granite in concrete with a view to reducing environmental pollution resulting from the accumulation of OPS as waste from palm oil mills. This paper investigated some important characteristics of concrete made with OPS as coarse aggregate and rice husk ash (RHA) partially replacing Ordinary Portland Cement (Ashment) as binding agent. The compressive strength of the Ashment:OPS concrete at 28 days was found to be 62% higher than the minimum required strength of 17N/mm2 and 22% lighter, for structural lightweight concrete recommended by ASTM C330. Ashment:OPS concrete can therefore be used in lightweight structures. The use of this concrete will reduce environmental pollution. This is because the major constituents of the concrete; OPS and RHA, are from waste.

Power cut off and Power Blackout in India a Major threat- An Overview[]

The Power is an essential commodity that is required for the routine life. Power cut off is a serious issue that needs to be overcome with immediate effect. Power and its generation, transmission, distribution and effective utilization are of considerable imporatance that plays a vital role in the Progress of a nation. The electricity requirements in India are increasing at a rapid rate and the power supply demand has been rising ahead of the supply. Energy crisis has been denting India quite badly, and suffers a huge deficit which must be recovered as soon as possible. The high demand but shortage in supply is one of the major reasons for intermittent power cuts in India. To address the present and future electricity demands effectively, governments, regulatory bodies and utility companies have to work with full dedication. Intelligent and proper investments should be made in transmission and distribution of electric power and development of new and advanced technologies like smart grid; smart meters are needed to transform the production, delivery and utilization of power. The state of the art presented in the paper is to show India suffering from frequent power cutoffs and very few times power blackouts. The adverse affects and reasons for power cut off and power blackout are also highlighted in the paper.The paper also deals with the preventive measures to overcome power cutoff and its ill effects.

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