IJOART Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2019 Edition

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A total of 214 lentil lines/varieties were screened out against stemphylium blight in three subsequent years of 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14 in Bangladesh. In the first year and second year different lines/varieties were screened in the research field under artificial inoculated condition at Plant Pathology Division, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Barisal, Bangladesh. Out of 214 lentil lines/varieties, 22 lines were selected as resistant to Stemphylium botryosum in the first year screening program. In the second year out of 24 lines/varieties (including 2 check varieties), 3 lines namely BD-6002, BD-3837 and BD-3926 were selected as resistant to S. botryosum. In the third year selected lines/varieties were screened out under natural epiphytotic condition at two locations at the research field of RARS, BARI, Rahmatpur, Barisal and Fruit Research Station, BARI, Binodpur, Rajshahi. Out of 3 lentil lines and 2 check varieties (BARI Masur-1 and BARI Masur-7), two lines viz. BD-6002 and BD-3837 showed resistant reaction to stemphylium blight and higher yield (1628 Kg/ha and 1447 Kg/ha) both the locations.


A field survey was conducted to know the prevalence of stemphylium blight caused by Stemphylium botryosum of lentil (Lensculinaris) growing 11 districts viz. Jessore, Kushtia, Faridpur, Pabna, Rajshahi, Maherpur,Madaripur, Barisal, Jhalokathi, Khulna and Satkhira in Bangladesh during cropping season of 2012-13 in the farmers’ field. One upazila was selected in each district and ten farmers field were selected randomly in each upazila. Out of 11 districts the highest disease incidence was found in Jhalokathi (Sadar) (77.90%) and the lowest disease incidence was found in Pabna (Ishardi) (45.50%). The highest disease severity was found in Faridpur (Sadar) and the lowest disease severity was found Kushtia (Kumarkhali). Farmers used six different varieties in 11 districts. Local variety performed highly susceptible (HS), BARI Masur-3 and BARI Masur-4 showed moderately susceptible (MS) and BARI Masur-5, BARI Masur-6 and BARI Masur-7 showed moderately resistant (MR) disease reaction under field condition.


Nurses form the largest proportion of the healthcare system and play a significant role in providing direct patient care. Considering the importance of the role of nurses in the healthcare system, it is important to investigate how nurse managers leadership style effects the quality of patient care, nurses’ job satisfaction (Mudihanselage & Chamaru, 2015).The level of employees’ job satisfaction is directly related to the style of leadership they work under and access to structural empowerment. Effective leadership not only increases the satisfaction and productivity levels of team, but consequently leads to increased quality of patient care (Warshawsky, Lake, & Brandford, 2013).METHODS: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the influence of structural empowerment and resonant leadership on job satisfaction of registered nurses at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore Pakistan.RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the mean age of participants was 27.00 ± 3.22 years old, it was observed that mostly participants of the study was female. Mostly participant were unmarried 135(64%) while 76(36%) were married. The outcomes of this study recommended that resonant leaders are helpful in creating structurally empowering situations that influence on nurses job satisfaction.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that managers who emphasize transparency, balanced processing, self‐awareness, and high ethical standards also effectively increase nurses' perceptions of workplace empowerment, which in turn enhances their performance and job satisfaction. Work environments that provide open access to information, resources, support, and opportunities for learning and development both empower and enable nurses to accomplish their work.

Zone of Proximal Development[]

The interpretation of the term, ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ (ZPD) could be illustrated in a deeper context based on the authentic complexities of association between development and learning. An ordinary characterisation of the Zone of Proximal Development might not be as important as a seminal comprehension of the theoretical strategy could be in order to comprehend the ‘just right’ meaning of the term. An wider and clear view of the Zone of Proximal Development could be portrayed if the gist of Vygotsky’s theoretical creations, where the general notion of development is depicted, are minutely considered. Vygotsky has a strong position in support of a special kind of learning that is closely and largely related to a developmental function where the development transmits from the social level to the individual level; from the inter-psychological (people) level to the intra-psychological (individual) level. For a clear clarification about the Zone of Proximal Development, it is better to differentiate the concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (its theoretical interconnection with other concepts) from the definition of the Zone of Proximal Development (its interconnection between learning and development). Also, there must be a vivid illustration of other psychologists’ notions about Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development as there are some great criticisms against Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development.The aim of this study is to sketch the definition of Vygotsky's (1896-1934) view of the Zone of Proximal Development with a special focus on evaluating the relation between social and individual dissimilarity in current learning capability (an already achieved level) and probability (the achievable level with the help of others).The objectives of this research are to make this definition of this term more vivid to the educationists and researchers by providing some more additional but completely related areas to the Zone of Proximal Development, e.g. authentic instances, fundamental beliefs about it, real essence, scaffolding, mediation, psychological tools, operation of this term in educational settings, ways of evaluating this term, comments of others educational psychologists about it, and appropriate sourcing. Finally, the goal of this research study is to ensure that more than one objective has been achieved through measurable and observable results that entirely serve the purpose of the aim of this research.

Thyroid Gland Disorders in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Yemen[]

Introduction: The thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism are strongly associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.The aims of the study were to clarify this association in Yemeni patients and to find out the risk factors that may predispose to its occurrence. Methods: This study was performed on 50 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) Yemeni patients and abdominal ultrasonography (US) and 50 healthy subjects for whom the following was done: free thyroxin (FT3), free triiodothyronine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), auto-antibody against thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin (Tg-Ab), liver function tests, PBG, blood cholesterol level, blood creatinine level. Results: The Mean anti-TPO and anti-Tg were higher levels in female than male, As regards the thyroid autoimmunity and sex, the females (25%) were higher than male (3.8%) in development of thyroid auto-antibody. Female Patients with chronic hepatitis C were more likely to have hypothyroidism (16.6%) as compared to males by (3.8%). This result were statistically significantly in the studied HCV patients with Liver cirrhosis than chronic hepatitis C. Liver cirrhosis hepatitis C Patients were more likely to have hypothyroidism (15%) as compared to chronic hepatitis C by (8%) and thyroid autoimmunity (23%) in liver cirrhosis hepatitis as compared to chronic hepatitis C by (11%). Conclusion: Chronic HCV infection was associated with the development of thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism com-pared to normal controls. There was statistically significant between the thyroid autoimmunity and female infected with chronic hepatitis C and statistically significant between the thyroid autoimmunity and liver cirrhosis hepatitis C than chronic hepatitis C patients.


Nurse Manager’s practices play a vital role in nursing retention and promotion of best care in nursing. Improved the nursing retention will prompt reserve the organization, which may additionally be allocated to activities, for example preparing and mentorship to help nurse managers in making these imperative management capabilities. Approaches also want to be set up to ensure that nurse managers accomplish adequate organizational support from nursing administrators (C. M. Duffield, Roche, Blay, & Stasa, 2011). In Pakistan, the nursing profession has been experiencing a workforce shortage staff in recent years, making nurses a precious resource. The substantial low retention of nurses is mainly due to their intent to leave, absenteeism. The work-life issues threatening retention of nurses and quality o f care are serious concern for health administrators (Hamid, Malik, Kamran, & Ramzan, 2014).METHODS: A quantitative analytical cross sectional study was conducted to assess the relationship of nurse manager’s practices with nurse’s retention and quality of care. The instrument use for the data collection was adopted questioner and convenient sampling technique was used.RESULTS: showed that P-value significant and standardized coefficient beta 0.112 and 0.417 that’s mean all variables of Nurse Manager’s Practice and Nurse’s Retention effect at11.2 %.and 41.7% respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The present study was considered as a cornerstone that gives strong support towards understanding of nurses’ manager’s practices and their retention. It highlighted that a significant difference was found between management practices with nurse’ retention and patient care. These results substantiate the belief that aspects of the practice environment affect staff nurse retention, and most importantly, the quality of care delivered on hospital nursing units.


This study focused on the assessment of entrepreneurship education at tertiary institutions in Nigeria with particular reference to Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau. The study considered all the schools under Federal College of Education (Technical) Gusau, Zamfara State. Out of the seven (7) schools, twenty-five students were selected from each school through simple random sampling as the sample size of the study. Primary data was employed in gathering data for the study through structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed through SPSS 16.0. The data were analyzed through the use of regression analysis and correlation. Entrepreneurship actions serve as dependent variables while the entrepreneurship education, teaching methods, educator’s competence, and entrepreneurship curriculum contents serves as independent variables. The result of the study shows that the entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship curriculum content has a positive and significant influence on entrepreneurship actions while entrepreneurship education and teaching methods has no statistical significant influence on entrepreneurship actions. The study therefore recommends among other things that the stakeholders should ensure adequate entrepreneurship education in Nigeria tertiary institutions to inculcate entrepreneurship actions in graduates across Nigeria.

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