IJOART Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2014 Edition

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Effect of Embedded Length on Bond Behaviour of Steel Reinforcing Bar in Fiber Reinforced Concrete.[]

Adequate embedded length of steel reinforcing bar in concrete, ensures the stress transfer among steel and concrete. The inclusion of steel fibers in high strength concrete controls the sudden crack propagation and changes the mode of failure from ductile to brittle. The confinement provided by these fibers improves the bond strength. There was a need to study the affect of change in embedded length for fiber reinforced high strength concrete. Experimental study was done to determine the bond strength of fiber reinforced high strength concrete for different embedded lengths. The whole post peak bond behaviour was studied. The results of this experimentation confirmed that by increasing the development length from 3.5 db to 4.5 db, the bond strength of deformed steel bar in fiber reinforced high strength concrete increased from 15% to 90%, the corresponding slip reduced from 35% to 40%. This increase in bond strength and decrease in slip as a function of increase in development length is for short embedded lengths. This is due to increased mechanical bond strength of increased number of concrete keys that resisted the bond stress. During this the distribution of bond strength over the embedded length remains uniform. The results of this study may have a direct impact on development and splice length provisions of high strength fiber reinforced concrete.


Cellular industry has grown tremendously in recent years. Mobile technology is the most familiar part of the lives of people in today’s world. We can talk to other people at any time from everywhere and we can access information through mobile, can take photographs, record our thoughts with one device that we can share with our friends, colleagues and worldwide. We can also get connected by the mobile to many social networking programs. This paper shows comparison between two countries that is UK and Germany that are dealing with the innovation and new technology of mobile. Strategies adopted by mobile phone companies in order to attract customers to buy new models of mobile phones and how to satisfy their customers so that they can be have long term relation with their loyal customers. Loyalty can lead to stronger competitive position resulting in larger market share and profitability

ELT needs a bit creativity[]

What lies at the centre of the evolution of human language, according to complex/dynamic theory, is the need for humans to innovate and use language to construct new meaning. Language evolution studies propose that language grows in complexity over time to deal with complex tasks. Language goes through a trajectory of change in accordance with the needs of language users as they innovate complex language to handle complex tasks and communicate new meanings. However, in many language learning tasks used in research and language teaching, language is employed primarily to express ‘known meaning’ rather than to construct ‘unknown meaning’. In order to increase the learner’s desire to explore and retrieve less accessible language within and beyond their Zone of Proximal Development, this paper discusses how language learning tasks can be transformed into creative tasks. It proposes two conditions that facilitate creativity: the use of multicultural experiences and constraints.

An Overview to SQL Injection Attacks and its Countermeasures.[]

Web applications are those applications which run in web browser. These applications are accept some data and send it to database for further processing. There are number of attacks on web application like cross site scripting, cross site request forgery but SQL injection attacks are the most prominent. Number of papers in literature has been projected ways to avoid SQL injection attacks by examining dynamic SQL query semantics at runtime in the application layer. This paper contains the study of SQLIA and its prevention techniques. SQL injection attacks on web application have become one of the most important information security concerns [Pinzo’n C et al., 2010]. These SQL injection attacks are extremely widespread and posses a serius security threat [Khoury et al., 2011]. In today’s world SQL injection is one of the most dangerous security threats in database centric web applications [Elia et al., 2010] because this type of attack can comprise confidentiality and integrity of information in database [Tajpour A et al., 2010].

Responsible Change Management creates the Social effectiveness in the community[]

Social responsibility can be considered as changes of the efficiency and management of the situation related thoughts and innovative social actions. Change management / innovation are considered as the main way that it improves the social effectiveness. Strategic management is highlighted new areas of management it is presented briefly in which it has been reported. This paper described principles of the internal structure and effectiveness. Our study tries to answers a question of how to innovate, because a well accomplished change is the best way which is quick and long-lasting for social problem solving. Is it possible to design a change management of social responsibility, we finally applied? Social responsibility held effective rising is thus a central idea of this paper. Effectiveness with no aspect of abuse of economic and social efficiency worldwide have been reported to assess the system of a standard of social effectiveness improvement of social responsibility has been sketched.

Implementation and Performance Analysis of Markov random Field[]

Removing noise from original image is still a challenging problem for researchers. There have been several published algorithm and each approach has its assumptions, advantages and disadvantages. Markov Random Field is n-dimensional random process defined on a on a discrete lattice. Markov Random Field is a new branch of probability theory that promises to be important both in theory and application of probability. This paper is an attempt to present the basic idea of the subject and its application in image denoising to the wider audience. In this paper, a novel approach for image denoising is introduced using ICM (Iterated Conditional Modes) approach of Markov Random Fields model.


This research paper is an effort to recognize the key organizational structural practices which if approved and applied could prove tremendously effective in driving the organizations to attain business brilliance and excellence. Continuous Improvement needs to be practiced throughout the organization from management to employees under control and leadership. A practical and strategic tactic engaged by the executives in a best way for the growth of an organization and business attitude using continuous improvement as proved in the case study of Corus. Companies are usually familiar with the worth of continuous improvement (CI) in refining the performance; some have yet to improve the systems to guarantee that the efforts of the CI are intensive on concerns of strategic importance to any firm. Indeed, as documented in operations management, CI events can have an important influence on the expansion of strategy as well as its application that would probably lead toward business excellence. CI has strong relationships with TQM along with its elements to gain excellence. Further there is a strong relationship between strategic agility and continuous improvement as it continuously regulate and adapt strategic way in essential business, as a function of strategic ambitions and changing circumstances, and make not only new product and services, but also new business models and innovative methods to cope with external environmental factors and create worth for a firm.

Interactive Role of Climate Change On Economic Growth[]

Climate change is a very uncertain and complex external phenomenon that affects the economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to study the role of climatic changes on economic growth globally as the climate effects are very crucial to evaluate the economic growth. Climate change has significant effects on the economy hence on the economic growth. In order to study the effect of climate change, all the effects of climate change will be discussed followed by the factors of economic growth and their interactive effect will be analyzed.

Short Message Service Controlled Domestic Appliances[]

Short Message Service (SMS) is a feature of most mobile devices. Mobile phones most times transmit signals in the form of SMS. The sent signal is received and decoded by another mobile phone attached to the main system which converts the received signals into binary for the controller. The micro-controller takes in the binary output from the receiving mobile phone, and processes it based on a code written in the form of Assembly language, to drive certain appliances such as lighting points and sockets. With current energy crises, and issues regarding the efficient use of energy, it is the aim of this paper to propose a control system that will enable the end-user of energy to remotely control and operate electric appliances using SMS. The overall system enables the users to remotely control such appliances using their phone provided the SMS provider is online and that there is GSM network coverage over the area of control. This system can however be implemented using other methods such as Dual Tone Multi-frequency (DTMF) to achieve several other levels and types of control. Investigation has shown that energy consumption and efficiency can be achieved by the application of this proposal. About 30% of power is saved in a particular household during this investigation.


We propose to develop a trust system based on processing the payment reports to maintain a trust value for each node. The nodes that relay message more successfully will have higher trust values, such as the low-mobility and the large-hardware-resources nodes. Based on these trust value, we will propose a trust-based routing protocol to route message through the highly trusted node (which performance packet relay more successfully in the past) to minimize the probability of dropping the messages, and thus improve the network performance in terms of throughput and packet delivery ratio. The nodes submit lightweight payment report to the AC to update their credit accounts, and temporarily store undeniable security token called Evidences. The reports contain the alleged charges and rewards of different sessions with security proofs. The AC verifies the payment by investigating the consistency of the reports, and clears the payment of the fair reports with almost number of cryptographic operation. For cheating reports, the evidences are requested to identify and evict the cheating nodes that submit correct reports. Evidence aggregation technique is used to increase and decrease the storage area of the Evidences. Evidences are submitted and the AC applies cryptographic operations to verify them only in case of cheating, but the nodes always submit security tokens. However, the trust system should be secure against singular and collusive attacks, and the routing protocol should make smart decisions regarding node selection with low overhead.

Wireless Sensor Network based Forewarning Models for Pests and Diseases in Agriculture - A Case Study on Groundnut[]

In Agriculture, microclimate plays an important role in the growth and outbreak of pests and diseases.

Advertising Effectiveness on Consumer Decision Making & Decision Making : Study of Insurance Industry[]

This study is aimed at studying the impact of advertising and its various strategies in the insurance industry. This study also focuses on the role of insurance in general and the role of IRDA as a governing body for the insurance sector. The study also involves the overview of various players in the market for this specific sector.


India has been experiencing micro credit in the form of SHGs as a part of formal credit delivery system giving freedom to Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) to set up SHGs on various models. They have been recognized as useful tools to help the poor and as an alternative to meet the urgent credit needs of the poor. The country has witnessed a rapid growth of self -help-groups (SHG) in the last one decade or so. The SHG growth which has almost assumed the form of a movement represents a massive grassroots level mobilization of rural poor especially women into small informal associations capable of forgoing links with formal systems to help access financial and other services needed for their socio economic advancement. Basically, SHGs are being promoted as a part of the micro finance institutions aimed at helping the poor to easily obtain financial services like savings, credit and insurance. The SHG- Bank Linkage Program (SBLP) is a milestone strategy to improve rural people access to formal credit system in a cost effective and sustainable manner by making use of SHGs.

Corporate Governance Practices in Ghanaian Family Businesses: A Conceptual Framework[]

Family businesses are an often overlooked form of business ownership in today’s world, yet they are all around us. This means that families owns a significant share of businesses and can influence important decisions in today’s businesses, particularly the election of the chairman and chief executive officer.


Cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by static lesion to a developing nervous system that primarily affects motor function. Spastic motor involvement is characteristic of most of these individual.Dynamic equinus is a common deformity that worsens the ambulatory ability of both diplegic and hemiplegic conditions. The use of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback has been suggested as a training tool to improve the ability to increase activation of weak and partially paralyzed muscles and to decrease the activation of muscles affected by spasm or spasticity without regard to specific diagnosis. However, very few studies have reported the effects of EMG biofeedback on ankle function among children with spastic cerebral palsy .Objectives of the study was to increase the activation of tibialis anterior and to improve the functional ambulation.40 subjects were made part of the study on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria divided into two groups group A and B.Group A received traditional physical therapy exercises and electromypgraphic biofeedback and group B received only exercise program. The treatment duration was for 4weeks 3 sessions a week. The results were analysed using statistical tests that were paired and unpaired t-test and mann whitney test.The results showed significant improvement in the pre and post treatment. The conclusion of the study lended a favourable outlook to use biofeedback training in treatment of CP children, to improve functional ambulation and gait.

The Potential Economic Impact of Technologies_A Study[]

The increasingly notable presence of technology in our world, the ability to fully measure its impact remains limited, the effects of new technologies as they rapidly change our work routines, the way to spend our leisure time, or the products and services often or increasingly use for free. The pace and direction of technological progress increasingly determines who gets hired, how the children are educated, how to find information and entertainment, and how to interact with the physical world. This puts the onus on society to find the most meaningful measures of the value derived from new technologies so that we can truly understand and control what is happening to our economies and our lives.It experience the benefits of new technologies in profound ways when they save or extend our lives or those of our loved ones. But existing economic statistics such as GDP struggle to fully account for this value, which is often realized as consumer surplus and can take decades to show up in the numbers. Better approaches are needed to measure the full economic impact of technologies, both to evaluate their potential and to set an appropriate course.

Single Phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner with Minimum VA requirement[]

This paper deals with “unified power quality conditioners” (UPQCs) which aim to integrate series active and shunt active filters. The main purpose of a UPQC is to compensate for voltage flicker/imbalance, reactive power, negative sequence current and harmonics. It protects the consumer at the load end from supply voltage sag, and provides unity power factor condition at the utility for different values of load power factor. During the unbalanced voltage sag/swell at the input side, the DVR maintains the rated voltage at the load side. It regulates the load voltage with minimum VA loading of the overall UPQC by an optimum voltage angle injection. Some experimental results of UPQC using MATLAB are presented.

Novel K-Means Clustering Approach for Compressing Hyperspectral Image[]

The hyperspectral imagery can be very large, with a single image potentially occupying hundreds of mega bytes making acquisition, storage and transmission increasing complexity. This paper is proposed to compress the hyperspectral image by using k-means clustering. The compression ratio is improved by using k-means clustering approach by clustering pixels into classes based on pixel spectral similarity with other class members. Reconstruction quality is measured with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) in decibels, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) in decibles, mean-square error (MSE) and compression ratio (CR). The performance of the proposed approach is compared with PCA and DWT. Experimental result demonstrates that Novel k-means provide 90% compression ratio and 1.22 bit per pixel (bpp) of the original image.

Study of low loss Plasmonic Semi conductor oxide Materials as compared to lossy conventional noble metals[]

Wave guiding using Plasmonics (for high density integration) has no future unless the loss problem is solved. Since noble metals such as gold and silver are lossy, new materials need to be identified and developed. Transparent oxide and transition metal nitrides are doped to provide low loss materials whose plasma frequency is in the near or mid infrared. Therefore we propose heavily doped oxide semiconductors that offer both functional and fabrication advantages in the near infrared wavelength range. So Aluminum doped Zinc oxide and Gallium doped zinc oxide are new plasmonic materials with low loss.

A note on gold in southern Rajasthan-A conceptual model[]

In Rajasthan, the metasedimentary and metavolcanic of the Lower Aravallies has been represented by earlier workers as an abortive Proterozoic greenstone belt. The occurrence of gold, therefore, has been postulated in the Paleoproterozoic belt extending from Nathdwara in the North to Jhabua in Madhya Pradesh in the South. A tectonic lineament, suggested by workers and supported by Landsat imagery, represents a zone of discontinuity of tectonic significance that has provided a conducive locale for circulation of mineralising fluids for gold and associated metals. The occurrence of albitite near Sakhun and Ladera suggests a deep, fracture-controlled, igneous emplacement and therefore is a conducive assemblage to host gold.


In this paper, we consider (0, 2) - interpolation on the nodes , which are vertically projected zeroes of the (1-x2)Pn(α,β) (x) on the unit circle, where Pn(α,β) (x) stands for Jacobi polynomial . We obtain the explicit forms and establish a convergence theorem for the interpolatory polynomial.


This paper suggests reduction of Resistance to Zero within employees in any organization, provided the fact that change is brought with planning and implemented using certain leadership characteristics. Resistance does not occur if employees are properly motivated and are prepared for change. Authors have used Beckhard Harris Change model to explain the co-relation between change factors and resistance (DxVxF=R).On the other hand if the direction of change is not aligned with organizational goals, the management and staff find themselves disengaged ,causing stress within the organization. This paper focuses on the factors and phases of stress which employees have to go through, in situations where change management does not proceed through proper leadership and employee engagement. The study uses Change curve Model to explain the phases of stress caused by change and associated employee reactions.


Background: Nursing research utilization is the process of synthesizing, disseminating and using research generated knowledge to make significant impact on the existing nursing practice. Research utilization has been associated with high quality nursing practice. Despite availability of research findings and evidences, nurses have been faced with many barriers which hinder them from utilizing research knowledge in their practice.


Energy is the universal measure of all kinds of work and its consumption has an increasing trend worldwide. The combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum oils and natural gas generates energy, which is mainly used for the improvement of the quality of life. These conventional fuels are depleted exponentially and so it is imperative to study the existing energy users, consumption patterns and demand especially in urban areas for utilizing the energy efficiently. In this connection, the present investigation is carried out in Madurai and Salem, the second and fifth largest and most densely populated cities in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The energy consumers are identified in this city and they are categorized as transport sector. The energy demand of these sectors is quantified and the energy consumption for all these sectors is studied. The variations in energy utilization are assessed by adopting cluster sampling method and the results are discussed in this paper. As the energy demand and environmental deterioration are in increasing trend, it is concluded that the implementation energy consumption that includes the execution of energy conservation measures and utilization of renewable energy sources are essential not only to match the demand and supply of energy but also to safe guard the health and wealth of the inhabitants in Madurai and Salem Cities.

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