IJOART Volume 6, Issue 8, August 2017 Edition

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Aromatic Sulphonation and Related Reactions[]

Aromatic sulphonation and related reactions are of immense importance industrially having wide application in dyestuff and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in tonnage chemical production such as in the manufacture of detergents. Consequently, much of the published work on this subject comes from industrial laboratories, often as patent specifications.This survey covers the direct sulphonation of benzene and many of its derivative, of naphthalene and of the simpler aromatic heterocycles. Sections are also devoted to the topics of chlorosulphonation and sulphone formation, with a brief mention of desulphonation.The "related reactions" have been taken as those reactions which occur concurrently with sulphonation. These include desulphonation and sulphone formation. Also chlorosulphonation has been considered, as often the sulphonic acid is not isolated, being immediately converted to the sulphonyl chloride.

Designing a Reservoir System for Waterflooding; (A Niger-Delta Case Study)[]

A dynamic reservoir simulation was performed on Eclipse to investigate the applicability of recommended waterflood design principles to an offshore Niger Delta oil field case study. To ascertain contributions of the different schemes and techniques applied in selecting the most appropriate waterflood design, a case of recovery by natural depletion was first considered. This recovery approach, after all possible optimizations, yielded a recovery factor of 28.7%, implying the need for additional recovery by secondary and enhanced oil recovery technologies. The numerical reservoir model was subsequently examined under different cases to optimize a secondary recovery water scheme. Optimized parameters included critical gas saturation, well placement, plateau production and injection rates, and well completion. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with respect to these optimization constraints. With five injectors, including a converted watered-cut producer, overall recovery at the end of the waterflood project simulation was 49.6%, a significant leap from that obtained by natural depletion.

Theoretical Performance Analysis of Different Refrigerants in a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System []

This paper comparatively analysis the thermodynamic performance of refrigerants in an ideal vapour compression refrigera-tion cycle. Refrigerants used for the study are; R-12, R-22, R-134a, R-407c and R410a. Average ambient temperature of Calabar (latitude 4.950N and longitude 8.330E) was used in this study. Result shows that R-12 refrigerant required the least compressor work input, while R-407c produced the best refrigerating capacity (182.2kJ/kg). R-12 had the lowest power consumption per ton of refrigeration of 0.311. The best Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 11.32 was obtained from the cycle operating with R-12 closely followed by R-410a and R-407c with COPs of 6.97 and 4.91 respectively. However, the environmental impact analy-sis shows that R-12 has the highest Global Warming Potential (GWP) closely followed by R-410a. R-12 and R-22 have Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) of 0.82 and 0.055 thus indicating a high affinity for ozone depletion. Based on both thermodynamic and environmental analysis, R-407c was selected as the candidate refrigerant to replace R-22 in air conditioners operating in Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

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