Three Port MIMO Antenna for 4G Application[View]
Islam E. Kotb. Reda. S. Ghoname, Hussein H. Ghoz, Hani H. Kaldass
A design for a novel compact microstrip planar MIMO antenna system suitable for 4G application is presented. A decoupling network was introduced to improve the MIMO antenna ports isolation. The MIMO antenna resonates at 5.1 GHz, 5.29 GHz, 6 GHz, 6.1 GHz, 11.4 GHz and 11.92 GHz for VSWR 2 and good port isolation. The MIMO antenna system can be configured to be a two-port of three-port system. A prototype of the MIMO antenna system was fabricated and measured.
Implementation of High Speed Distributed Data Acquisition System[View]
Anju P.Raju, T.Sabu
This paper introduces a high speed data acquisition system based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The aim is to develop a "distributed" data acquisition interface. The distributed approach also has advantages from a functional point of view: acquisition resources become available to multiple instruments; the acquisition front-end can be physically remote from the rest of the instrument. High speed data acquisition system transmits data faster to a remote computer system through Ethernet interface. The data is acquired through 16 analog input channels. The input data commands are multiplexed and digitized and then the data is stored in 1K buffer for each input channel. Then the input data is filtered using FIR filters implemented using processor. The filtering is used to reduce the band width of the input data The main control unit in this design is the 16 bit processor implemented in the FPGA. This 16 bit processor is used to set up and initialize the data source and the Ethernet controller, as well as control the flow of data from the memory element to the NIC Using this processor we can initialize and control the different configuration registers in the Ethernet controller in a easy manner. Then these data packets are send to the remote PC through the Ethernet interface. The main advantages of the using FPGA as standard platform are its flexibility, low power consumption, short design duration, fast time to market, programmability and high density. The main advantages of using Ethernet controller AX88796 over others are its non PCI interface, the presence of embedded SRAM where transmit and reception buffers are located and high-performance SRAM-like interface. The paper introduces the implementation of the distributed data acquisition using FPGA by VHDL. The main advantages of this system are high accuracy, high speed, real time monitoring.
A Study On Direct Selling Through Multi Level Marketing[View]
F. Mary Merlin
Direct selling is a multi-level marketing in which the sales force is compensated not only for the sales they make but also for the sales done through their recruit. This recruited sales force is referred to as the participants who can provide multiple levels of compensation. A person's job would be to recruit others to sell their product, and in return, receive a percentage of their sales. The next person's job then is to recruit people even more so below them, and receive a percentage of their sales. Other terms for Multi-level marketing include network marketing and referral marketing. Commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship through referrals marketing. Some people use direct selling as a synonym for MLM, although MLM is only one type of direct selling.
Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instuctions (CAI) In Teaching of Mathematics at Secondary Level [View]
R. Dhevakrishnan, Dr.S.Devi and Chinnaiyan.K
The present study was aimed at effectiveness of computer assisted instructions (CAI) in teaching of mathematics at secondary level adopted experimental method and observing the difference between (CAI) and traditional method. A sample of sixty (60) students of IX class in VVB Matriculation Higher Secondary School at Elayampalayam, Namakkal district were selected for a sample and sample was divided into two group namely experiment and control group. The experimental group consisted 30 students who were taught 'Mensuration' by the computer assisted instructions and the control groups comprising 30 students were taught by the conventional method of teaching. Data analyzed using mean, S.D. and t-test. Findings of the study clearly point out that significant increase in the mean gain scores has been found in the post test scores of the experimental group. Significant differences have been found between the control group and experimental group on post test gain scores. The experiment group, which was taught by the CAI showed better, learning. The conclusion is evident that the CAI is an effective media of instruction for teaching Mathematics at secondary students.
Stress Functions in a Thin Annular Disc Due To Partially Distributed Heat Supply [View]
Sunil D. bagde and N.W.Khobragade
This paper concerned with stress functions in thin annular disc due to partially distributed heat supply to determine the temperature, displacement function and stress functions with the help of finite Fourier cosine transform, Marchi-Zgrablich transform and Laplace transform techniques
Recent Advancements in Food Waste Management [View]
Tawheed Amin, Poonam Chhabra, Suman Vikas Bhat
In the past few years, there has been a tremendous increase in food waste generation due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Population is also increasing and is expected to reach 9.5 billion by 2050. Both of these factors have put an emphasis to employ novel techniques for management of waste generated so that waste generation could be reduced to a minimum or these wastes could be converted into some valuable products. Therefore, in this view much technological advancement has occurred in the recent past which has proved to be useful for combating this problem. In this review, a brief introduction to status of waste generation and novel methods for its management has been discussed.
Dynamic Testing of ADC: A Review[View]
Bhawana Garg, Dr. D.K.Mishra
Analog to digital converters are Mixed signal devices. With the increasing popularity of these devices , it is important to get more faster and accurate device. Along with design, testing of ADC plays major role . Static and Dynamic methods are available for ADC testing. Ideal ADC itself has quantization error. A NonIdeal ADC consists many other errors like offset error, Gain error, DNL, INL,ENOB,SNR,THD,SINAD etc. In this paper various methods of dynamic testing of ADC are discussed.
Evaluation of ecofriendly management practices of french bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in organic farming system[View]
G.K.N.Chhetry and H.C.Mangang
Organic farming system emphasises on sustainable development of agriculture. The traditional agriculture system was much akin to the organic system but modernization of agriculture made a shift to this trend. The north east region of India is potential organic farming sites. Most of the farming systems are traditional and are organic by default; however crops in organic farming are prone to many fungal diseases. Hence for validation of the impact of organic practices on the disease development of plants, a study has been conducted for three years under natural environmental conditions on bean rust (Uromyces appendiculatus). Study includes ecofriendly practices like: plant extract treatment, intercropping of beans with maize, organic manure application, influence of cropping season and Trichoderma treatment. Rust is a major prevalent disease in the cultivation of beans as in other parts of the world. Detailed study of the disease in the organic environment and the impact of various treatments and agricultural agronomic practices would help in validation of the practices for the management of the disease in the organic farming system. In our study for three consecutive years it has been revealed that the practices of the traditional farmers like plant extract application, intercropping, and manure application were found to have significant positive effects in reducing rust development in the bean fields. The treatment of farm yard manure resulted in development of lesser area under disease progress curve. The plant extract of Artemisia vulgaris has marked positive impact on reducing rust disease parameters. Foliar application of Trichoderma reduces the disease parameters of rust. This study would enhance information in understanding the impact of organic farming system on bean rust and would help in validitation of sustainable agricultural practices for use in organic farming system.
Design and development of CCD Optical Sight for tracking real time objects [View]
R. Sudhakar Rao, Prof. S. Chandra Lingam
Charge Coupled Devices enable instant imaging. Basing on this principle, novel CCD Optical Sight was developed. The necessity, design principles with the help of theory and development details with the help of system data, diagrams and photographs are provided in this paper. Application of the device is explained.
Philosophy of Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007 in India: An Appraisal [View]
Dr. Runa Mehta
When the winds of change blow all around and new situations and conditions emerge, necessitating newer responses conducive to achieve the broad national goal. There has been a steady rise in the population of older persons in India, because of an appreciable increase in the life expectancy. But with the increase in population the traditional norms and status of the senior citizens have deteriorated. The result of withering of the joint family system, industrialization, globalization etc. is that a large number of parents are not being maintained by their children, as was the normal social practice. Consequently, the elders are now exposed to emotional neglect and to lack of physical and financial support. They are facing a lot of problems in the absence of adequate social security. Keeping in view of above facts, to ensure that the children perform their moral obligation towards their parents and to eliminate the agony and sufferings of this vulnerable section of society, legislation for the welfare of the Parents and Senior Citizens in pursuance of the provisions of Article 41 read with Entry 23 of the Concurrent List ( Schedule VIII) of the Constitution of India has been enacted and titled as The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007.
Asymptotic Attractivity Results For Functional Differential Equation In Banach Algebras[View]
In this paper, we have proved an existence results for local asymptotic attractivity and existence of asymptotic stability of solutions for nonlinear functional differential equations in Banach algebras
Design of Free Space Inverted U Shaped Antenna for ISM Band, GSM-900 and S-DMB Application[View]
Md. Masudur Rahman, Md. Mozaffor Hossain, Khaled Mahbub Morshed, Md. Motaher Hossain, Md. Rabiul Islam
An inverted U shaped free space antenna is developed in YZ plane to achieve a bandwidth of 83MHz from 873MHz to 956MHz at 914 MHz resonance frequency with 1.82dB forward gain and -36dB reflection coefficient for ISM band and GSM-900 application. This proposed antenna also operates at 2.6 GHz for S-DMB application. The key configuration of the proposed antenna is connected of capital 'U' and small 'u' backs one another. The small 'u' arms helps to obtain SWR around 1.The input impedance of the antenna is 49.67ohm so without any matching network it is matched with characteristic impedance 50 ohm cable. A prototype of the inverted U shaped antenna has been presented in this paper by using a valid simulation and measurement results.
Representation of Product Bases for the Rationals[View]
A sequence of positive rationals generates a sub group of finite index in the multiplicative positive rationals, and group product representation by the sequence need only a bounded number of terms, if and only if certain related sequences have densities uniformly bounded from below.
A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.[View]
Dr. Yasmeen Majid Khan, Dr. Asmat Majid Khan
The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the non-agricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.
A novel process for key exchange avoiding man-in-middle attack[View]
Barun Biswas, Krishnendu Basuli
For the security porpoise in the internet cryptography is one of the most important subjects nowadays. Designing a cypher for data exchange between two nodes or receiver and sender deals with one of the troubleshoot jobs. In our proposed algorithm we try to introduce a new technique in the field of cryptography. We are hopeful that this new technique will sure reduces the overhead of data or key exchange between nodes. Here we will discuss the symmetric key exchange between nodes.
Radiation in Treatment of Foods[View]
Sreenath Pillai, Leena Muralidharan
In the present world, it is not a difficult thing to preserve any kind of food item provided we follow the correct methods. The food stuffs are to be basically kept safe from the various microorganisms that thrive on the food materials. In this context is that the technique of radiation comes into the fore front. It even has a high margin of safety compared to other preservation methods since it keeps the food stuff afresh of all the vital contents like the minerals and vitamins. Radiation deploys the destruction and resistance to the growth of different kinds of microorganisms. The irradiated food stuffs are, therefore, stable with a long sterile shelf life without any refrigeration
Susceptibility of Integrated Circuits to Electrostatic Discharge[View]
Rajashree Narendra, M.L. Sudheer, D.C. Pande
The components that are considered fairly rugged can be damaged by electrostatic discharge (ESD). Bipolar transistors, the earliest of the solid state amplifiers, are not immune to ESD, though less susceptible. Devices manufactured using metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology can be easily damaged due to ESD but some of the newer high speed components can be ruined with as little as 3 volts. The integrated circuits (IC) are susceptible to ESD due to its small size and unavailability of larger area to dissipate the excess energy. The susceptibility of IC's can be determined by various ESD stress tests. The different ESD stress modes on an input or output pin which is Pin-to-VSS, Pin-to-VDD are used to test an IC. The IC after ESD stresses may undergo damage not only in the input/output circuits or devices, but also in the internal circuits. The effects of ESD on various logic gates belonging to both transistor-transistor logic (TTL) and Complementary MOS (CMOS) logic families have been studied. The comparison between TTL and CMOS logic gates reveal that CMOS devices are more susceptible to ESD than TTL devices.
Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion the Environment and Agriculture[View]
Dr S.M.Ali, Mr. Nutan Ku.Dash, Ms Arjyadhara Pradhan, Mr. Sthita Prajna Mishra
Ozone depletion results in greater amounts of UV-B radiation that had an impact on terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical systems. Biogeochemical cycles were the complex interactions of physical, chemical, geological and biological processes that control the transport and transformation of substances in the natural environment and therefore the conditions that humans experience in Earth's system. The increased UV-B radiation impinging on terrestrial and aquatic systems, due to ozone depletion, results in changes in the trace gas exchange between the continents, oceans and the atmosphere. This had result in complex alterations to atmospheric chemistry, the global elemental cycles such as the carbon cycle, and had an impact on the survival and health of all organisms on Earth, including humans.
Cancer Detection Using adaptive Neural Network[View]
Seema Singh , Sunita Saini, Mandeep Singh
We present a system which detects the cancer stage using clustering techniques. The task is accomplished using Adaptive Resonance Neural Network (ARNN), a special case of unsupervised learning. A vigilance parameter (vp) in ARNN defines the stopping criterion and hence helps in manipulating the accuracy of the trained network. To demonstrate the usefulness of ARNN, we used Wisconsin breast cancer database. The database available in the UCI database repository contains 699 cases out of which we used 600 cases to train the network. In this dataset there are 375 benign cases and 225 as malignant cases. We see that at vp=0.2 the network has Recall (i.e. true negative rate) is 75% and average Accuracy=82.64% and Precision is 79%.
Is Legalising Surrogacy- An Outsourcing Motherhood?[View]
Mula. Sneha Goud, Abhiram Sunkara
The roots of surrogacy can be traced long back in Indian history. The world's second and India's first IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) is a baby - Kanupriya alias Durga in 1978. Since then the field of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has developed rapidly. But legally the laws related to surrogacy are still in the nascent stage. At present the agreement between the parties based on the ART Guidelines are the guiding force of such treatment and the codified law is yet to be adopted and implemented. With the recent growth in the Intended parents opting for surrogacy, India has become the much sought after surrogacy destination. In my opinion, the acceptance of same sex marriages/union and the recognition of the basic human right to have family and children had given rise to surrogacy manifold. However, at the same time nations all across the globe are condemning commercial surrogacy as it results in commercialization of human reproductive system and co modification of children. For it has various socio-ethical reasons, surrogacy has also became a topic of deep interest amongst the government of different nations, medico-legal luminaries as well as public at large. There are two types of surrogacy which are in detail discussed in this paper. The article would emphasis on the only impediments that the system faces now (relate to the legal tangles) that manifest in various phases of the process involved.
Total Dominator Colorings in Graphs[View]
A total dominator coloring of a graph G without isolated vertices is a proper coloring of G with the extra property that every vertex in the graph G properly dominates a color class.The total dominator chromatic number of G is denoted by ctd(G) and is defined by the minimum number of colors needed in a total dominator coloring of G.In this paper we find ctd(G) for some classes of graphs and obtain a general bound.Also we obtain a characterization for lower and upper bound.
Studies of metal transport phase in river around Jamshedpur[View]
H. K. Shaw and Dr. H. S. Mishra
Studies of transport phase of four metals mainly Fe,Zn,Mn,Cd in the river water and discharge sample ofSubharnrekha river around Jamshedpur,were carried out in 2011.The fractionation analysis of sediments the river water and waste sediments for the four metals important phase like adsorbed/ion exchangeable , oxide coating, organic solid & crystalline phase were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer ,the result has been discussed & concentration of metals available to the biota has been estimated.
New Product Launching Ideas[View]
Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in today's diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage "trial" or "sampling" of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as "cognitive dissonance".
Jyotsna, Kapil and Aayush
Censorship on Internet has always wet its hands in the water of controversies, It is said to go in with synonym of "FILTERING THE NET" i.e. Either done to protect minors or for nation's privacy, some take it as snatching their freedom over internet and some take it as an appropriate step to protect minor, It has its supporters as well as opponents. Google has reported a whooping number of requests from Governments of U.K, China, Poland, Spain, and Canada to remove videos and search links that led to harassment, sensitive issues or suspicious people. This paper deals with the cons of censorship on internet and to make people aware of the fact that Internet is not a single body owned by an org. but an open sky of information shared equally by all. Research done has found out many unseen aspects of different people's view point.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.