IJOART Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2013 Edition


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Enhancing The Higher Education System In Developing Countries[]


Currently, there are more than 230 countries in this competitive world. Among those, most of them are still developing and under-developing, in which 80% of the world population lives, except the countries like USA, UK, Japan, Switzerland, etc. A country which has an increasing phase in GDP per capita, Economy and ability of self production is said to be a developing country. But, there are some factors affecting them, such as, rapid growth in population, increase in poverty and lack of industries which leads to increase in foreign investment, which means that, a country should be self-developing in order to attain the developed status. So the country should have more industries to be self produced. More industries lead to more job opportunity and more employment. In the present scenario of globalisation, privatization and liberalisation one should be quite alert and competitive in human resources. The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in the age group of 16 + years is very low and most of the young generation is away from the main stream of education may be because of the education system, examination pattern, competency of teaching faculty and the level of knowledge received at previous stages. Hence, it is necessary to provide W- Class institutions to produce highly competent engineers with advanced knowledge, research aptitude and employability. A modest effort is made here to suggest a step towards W-Class Institutes.


Estimation of groundwater prospectus zone mapping and morphometric analysis of WRD-4 watershed in Wardha District of Maharashtra, India using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques[]


Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allow the viewing and analysis of multiple layers of spatially related information associated with a geographical location or region. GIS enables companies and governments to easily analyze the development, maintenance, and impact of roads, vegetation, utilities (water, electrical, communication, sewage). The main component of the earth surface is the water, so that RS and GIS is effective utilization in ground water prospecting and watershed management. Sustainable water resources development and management necessarily depends on proper planning, implementation, operation and maintenance. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques have to be effectively used to replace, complement and supplement ground data collection in various facets of different kinds of water resources projects. The synoptic large area repetitive coverage provided by satellite sensors when integrated with detailed time series information coming from ground sensors can provide appropriate data base which would lead to sustainable water resources development. Even though it is difficult to work out cost-benefit analysis of Remote Sensing applications in water resources management, many case studies and detailed discussions with the experts of the subject have proves that the cost of development can be brought down when Remote Sensing has been used along with conventional methods. This article provides an overview of application of Remote Sensing Techniques in various phases of water resources development and management, either independently or in association with conventional methods. The database is created using various techniques for the watershed management, i.e Morphometric analysis, Land Use and Land Cover and estimation of ground water prospecting zone. The principal source of ground water recharge in the Wardha district is through rainfall, The Remote Sensing is the gift for watershed analysis and in locating ground water prospectus zones. In this study an attempt has been made to understand the groundwater potential zone mapping and morphometric analysis of the WRD-4 watershed in Wardha District of Maharashtra, India using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques. Soil and water conservation measures have been suggested to the watershed to evaluate the hydrologic response of the measures undertaken. The results of morphometric analysis indicate negative correlation of stream order with the total number of streams present in the drainage Basin. The study reveals that remotely sensed data and GIS based approach is more appropriate than the conventional methods for the evaluation of drainage morphometric parameters and their influence on landforms, soils and eroded land characteristics at watershed level. Regional and local trends of geological setup are reflected in the variable orientation of channels of different rank in the catchment.


The Comparative Study of Software Maintenance Forecasting Analysis Based on Backpropogation (NFTOOL and NTSTOOL) and Adaptive nuero fuzzy interference system ANFIS.[]


Software could be called as heartbeat of today technology. In order to make our software pace with the modern day expansion, it must be inevitable to changes. Enhancements and defects can be stated as two major reasons for software change.Software maintainability refers to the degree to which software can be understood, corrected or enhanced. Maintainability of software accounts for more than any other Software engineering activity. The aim of the paper is to present a study based on the experimental analysis to show that ANFIS can more accurately predict maintainability as compared to other models. Predicting the maintainability accurately using ANFIS has got its benefits in now a day's risk sensitive business with economic environment where software holds the most valuable assets ,may it be transaction processing (governmental or banking service) ,manufacturing automation(chemicals ,automation) or any other industry.


An overview of Green Supply Chain Management in Bangaldesh[]


Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is gaining much importance in many industries due to pressure from the government and environment consciousness among the customers, to gain tompetitive advantages. With increased awareness to corporate responsibilit y and the requirement to meet the terms with environmental pllicy, green supply chain management (GSCM) is becoming increasingly important for Bangladeshi manufacturers. Companies that have adopted CSCM practies with a focus on distribution ativities hae successfully improved their business and environmental performance on many levels. Today's also some of remaining companies have not adopted green supply chain management, due to this environmental performace index (EPI) ranking of Bangladesh is not good. Today's environmental performance index (EPI) of angladesh and the major four activities of the green supply chain management ; namely green purchasing, green manufacturing, green marketing and reverse logistics are being covered throughout the paper.


Performance of salt-bridge microbial fuel cell at various agarose Concentrations using hostel sewage waste as substrate[]


Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilising the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. By altering the concentration of agarose in the fabrication of salt-bridge, performance of various double chambered microbial fuel cells were observed using hostel sewage wastewater as the substrate. Agarose concentration ranging from 7% to 12% was used for the study and optimum concentration was observed to be 10% as it showed maximum current production of 0.97mA at a voltage of 0.95 V after 22 days of operation from the time of initial experimental setup. The maximum power density obtained was 78.21mW/m2 and the corresponding current density was 82.37 mA/m2. 75.5% reduction in COD and 91.7% BOD reduction was obtained at 10% agarose concentration salt-bridge MFC. All experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean values are presented here.


An Integrated Real-Time Vision Based Home Security System[]


Crime is rampant these days because of which, people are installing security systems in their houses, offices, and so forth. This paper presents a vision based home security system that uses a web camera, modem, and a computer system. A picture is taken from a USB web camera at regular intervals and by using image change-detection technique any change will be identified. In case of any threat, the proposed system will detect, mark the change, and will send an alert SMS message to the designated mobile phone. It also sends an email to the designated mail IDs, with the photographs as attachments. Further, if a voice modem is connected to the system, it dials a designated phone and reads the alert message. The entire system is implemented in Java technology.


Existent Innovation and Native Modernity in the fiction of Chetan Bhagat[]


Society and culture make a strong structure for a nation in which literature and civilization persist. Those who take fiction as a medium of their shared emotions always cling to nativity. It becomes the soul of fiction. Chetan Bhagat's eleven years resident in Hong Kong could not resist him to pay the debt of mother India. After coming back to his motherland he decided to serve for the connoisseurs of literature. His indomitable courage of quitting the job and became a free-lance novelist brought name and fame in his career. He went ape over his goal. He has touched a nerve with young Indian readers and acquired almost cult status1..An Indian author, columnist and the speaker whose five books remained best sellers since their release and three have inspired Bollywood films(including the hit films-3 Idiots and Kai Po Che).We know that literature is the mirror of society and real image comes from the contemporary literature.


Acupressure Exercise for Health Promotion and Prevention from Disease[]


Man the crown of creation. He has become Schizophrenic, a split personality. Today's life have become a never ending race time, technology and targets, this creates tension. People are predisposed to various diseases based on their way of living and occupational habits. There is an urgent need to find a remedy for his malady. In this way Vethathiri Maharishi (1911-2006) in the SKY system, who was a professional Physician designed the system of simplified Physical exercise, after a study of many Prevailing systems and on the basis of his own medical experience through much practice. The early Chinese theory explains that the root cause of all diseases, in terms of Acupressure's a disorder of energy vibration. Every cell in the body vibrates at a specific rate and when this vibration of energy goes beyond the normal range, it gives rise to a disease. Acupressure aids in the normal restoration of correct and harmonious vibration and in this way restores the health. The objective of this paper is by doing exercise with acupressure 14 points results the rectification of electrical short circuit originate due to the Stagnation of Bio - magnetism. It regulates the functioning of our inner organs around the stomach and balancing the circulation of life force. It helps to prevent heart trouble, by regulating practice and also stimulate the nerves system. Insomnia is one of the psychic disorders that can be annihilated by the Acupressure exercise effectively. So, it helps to have a sound sleep. Overall, the aim of this study is to introduce the practice of Acupressure exercise and highlight its potential role in the maintenance of health and wellness, as well as in the prevention and management of disease and illness.


Orbital-free Density Functional Theory Prediction Of The Structure Of Mg, Al And Si Crystals[]


In this paper, we perform Orbital Free-Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT) to study the properties of metals (Mg and Al) and a semiconductor (Si), we calculate the total energy for various Mg, Al and Si structures and volumes employing the Wang-Teter (WT) Kinetic Energy Density Functional (KEDF) and the Wang-Govind-Carter (WGC) KEDF. We use the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) for the exchange correlation functional.


Modeling of PV Array and Analysis of Different Parameters[]


This paper defines a circuit-based simulation model for a PV array in order to allow and estimate the electrical behavior of a PV array with respect changes on environmental parameter of temperature and irradiance. Taking the effect of sunlight irradiance, cell temperature, shunt resistance and ideality factor into consideration the output current and power characteristics of PV model are simulated and optimized using the MATLAB/ simulink. An accurate PV array electrical model is presented based on the Shockley diode equation. A particular typical 550W solar array was used for Standalone system analyzed. Keywords : PV Modeling, Photovoltaic array, MATLAB simulink


Speed optimization of Cryptographic Algorithm Using Hardware-Software Co-design[]


Cryptography is the science of information security which converts data into a secret code for transmission over a public network. In cryptography the original text called "plaintext" is turned into a coded equivalent called "ciphertext" via an encryption algorithm. The ciphertext is decrypted at the receiving end and turned back into plaintext. This encryption/decryption algorithms are commonly implemented using an embedded processor combined with specific hardware. There are a several embedded soft core processors like NIOS3, LEON3, MicroBlaze etc that are commonly used to implement whole encryption/decryption algorithm. Implementation of whole cryptographic algorithm in C programming language results in slower the speed. While FPGAs with soft processor cores allows designer to make proper choice based on his own design requirements to build his own hardware platform. So this Paper presents the work on speed optimization of cryptographic algorithm using hardware-software co-design. Its main purpose is to increase the computational speed of the SMS4 algorithm. Custom hardware of time consuming block is interface with microblaze soft core processor. Hardware of time consuming block and software function of remaining algorithm increases computational speed of cryptographic algorithm.


To Increase Scalability Of The Wireless Sensor Network By Improving The Leach Protocol[]


Scalability is defined as ability to handle growing number of users in a network .A routing protocol is considered scalable with respect to network size. In a wireless sensor network the routing protocol which is very efficient in performance is the hierarchical routing Protocol. This Protocol uses the clustering scheme.However, there is an assumption that sensor nodes can communicate with the base station by one-hop routing. But as the network size increases this protocol is inefficient, because of large distance between clusterhead and base station causes communication problems. In this project, we proposing clusterhead binding process to solve this problem by improving the LEACH protocol.Hence proposed scheme is suitable for vast wireless sensor network.


Analysis And Synthesis Of Speech Using Matlab[]


The interval of each sound wave has different frequency in its sub-sections. This paper has made an analysis of two matlab functions namely GenerateSpectrogram.m and MatrixToSound.m , in order to analyze and synthesis the speech signals. The first Matlab code section GenerateSpectrogram.m record the user input sound for user (more precisely from the source) defined duration and asks required parameters for computation of spectrogram and returns a matrix with frequency as rows and time as column and corresponding matrix element as amplitude of that frequency. MatrixToSound.m uses the method of additive synthesis of sound to generate sound from the user defined matrix with frequencies as its rows and time as its columns. Sound recording is an electrical or mechanical inscription of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a small microphone diaphragm that can detect changes in atmospheric pressure (acoustic sound waves) and record them as a graphic representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph. Digital recording converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by a process of digitization, allowing it to be stored and transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. The feature of analysis and synthesis of sound, is applied to create the speech with the help of matrix of elements as frequency or time domain analyzed parameters with specific amplitude.


Review On Offline Signature Verification Methods Based On Artificial Intelligence Technique[]


Signature can be used as a biometric is implemented in various systems as well as every signature signed by each person is distinct at the same time. It is very important to have a computerized signature verification system. In case of offline signature verification system dynamic features are not included obviously, but we can use a signature as an image and apply image processing techniques to make an effective offline signature verification system. Author wants to illustrate two techniques reviewed by him on Offline signature Verification. Those techniques are mixed of Energy with Angle and Energy with Chain Code.


Processing Of Waste Polyethylene Sachets For Thread Applications[]


Disposal of waste polyethylene product is one of the most serious environmental problems confronting many developing countries thus; there is the need to explore new techniques in recycling them. In this work, Threads were made from waste polyethylene sachets, pure polyethylene materials and blends of ratio 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 of pure to waste materials. The melting point ranged between 113-141oC for pure polyethylene threads, 109-132oC for waste polyethylene threads and 109-135oC for blended threads. The yield strength ranged between 21.7-47.2kN/m2 for pure polyethylene threads, 8.8-31.4kN/m2 for waste polyethylene threads and 7.2-32kN/m2 for blended polyethylene threads. The modulus of elasticity ranged between 0.039-0.512MN/m2 for pure polyethylene threads, 0.015-0.449Mn/m2 for waste polyethylene threads and 0.012-0.50MN/m2 for blended threads. However, the blended thread of ratio 1:1 gave melting point that ranged between 120-135oC which is comparable to 113-141oC of pure polyethylene threads, its yield strength and modulus of elasticity were comparable to that of pure polyethylene threads. Results gotten shows that waste polyethylene can be used to make thread.


Institutional Shackles to Entrepreneurial Development among the Ethnic Groups in North East India: A Study on Entrepreneurial Environment in Poumai Naga Ethnic Group[]


The question of why the Ethnic Groups of North East India continue to remain underdeveloped has been at the center of recent debates but they are mostly centered around insurgency, government's failures, physical and monetary factors, and other economic factors. The prime driver of economic progress and development is entrepreneurship yet questions relating such issues were hardly discussed. Therefore, the study attempts to investigate into socio-institutional environment of the Poumai Naga Ethnic Group to identify those elements which might inhibit entrepreneurial development. The overall institutional environment indicates the following characteristic features; (1) persistent complacent and contended economic behavior, (2) lack of basic business skills, (3) indifferent social attitude towards entrepreneurs and social stigmatization of unsuccessful businessmen, (4) lack of social support to and encouragement for entrepreneurship, (5) very high cost village financing and (6) lack of successful entrepreneurial role model in village.


Studies on growth, yield and economic parameters of kasthuri turmeric (Curcuma aromatica Salisb.) under organic manuring practices[]


Experiment was conducted at Vellayani (Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala) to study the combined effect of organic manures and microbial inoculants in kasthuri turmeric. The combinations of different organic manures such as Farm yard manure, Vermicompost and Neem cake and four microbial inoculants such as Azospirillum, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Trichoderma and Pseudomonas were taken for the study. The results indicated that application of treatment M2 d recorded significantly superior values for plant height, leaf area, rhizome and root characters followed by M3 d, M4 d and M1 d. Highest fresh and dry rhizome yield was produced by M2 d. Equivalent yield was also obtained from M3 d. Significantly superior yields compared to control were also registered by M4 d, M1 d, M2 d/2 and M4 d/2. Economic analysis revealed that, treatment M3 d recorded the highest B: C (Benefit: Cost) ratio (3.05) followed by M3 d/2 (2.92). Better B: C ratios were also observed with treatments M4 d/2, M1 d/2, M4 d, M1 d and M2 d/2 (2.57, 2.55, 2.53, 2.49 and 2.43) respectively. M2 d recorded a B: C ratio of 2.37. There was significant increase in the growth and yield of turmeric with the supplements and hence become cost effective.


Reliable and Efficient Power Supply in Nigeria through National Integrated Power Projects and Independent Power Projects: A Case Study of Onitsha Metropolis[]


Nigeria is presently faced with the challenge of providing sustainable, adequate, reliable, and efficient electricity supply to Nigerians. This has adversely affected the social and economic life of the whooping 150 million Nigerians. The abysmal and epileptic nature of electric supply in the country in general and Onitsha Metropolis in particular is becoming very unpalatable hence the recourse to National Integrated Power Projects (NIPP) and Independent Power Projects (IPP). To improve on this ugly situation, apart from generating enough quantity of power, the electricity delivery system ranging from transmission to distribution, must have robust and flexible networks always to satisfy the Nation's demand for electricity. This paper therefore is devoted to the assessment of the effect of NIPP/IPP projects so far on the supply of electricity in Onitsha Metropolis. The work revealed a 25.2% improvement in the percentage availability (%AV) of supply, reduction in outages and faults due to load shedding and load limitation by 10.7% and 7.06% respectively.


Genetic Engineering of Crop Plants for Enhanced Antioxidants Activity[]


The oxidation of simple foodstuffs by cells of most organisms (plants, animals and microbes) is the main way in which they derive energy for use in other processes. However, oxygen consumption and metabolism are fraught with danger. Active oxygen species (AOS) are formed as a result of aerobic metabolism, and these aggressive forms of oxygen are capable of serious damage to cell constituents, including membranes and DNA in plants and animals. The most common natural antioxidants in plants are flavonoids phenols, tannic acid, glutathione, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and enzymatic antioxidants, SOD etc. that prevent uncontrolled oxidation, regulate electron transport processes, participate in and control enzymatic reactions, and direct acclimation and development through control of gene expression. Nutritional and antioxidative capacity of plants has generated interest among plant scientists and human health researchers alike since nutrition-enriched food has the potential as a preventive strategy to decrease incidence of diet-related diseases. Genetic engineering has been applied to enhance the concentration of useful nutrients in crop plants. Some of these fruits have been tested in animal systems and found to provide protection against diet-related diseases, and improved life span. An attempt has been made in this review to provide a common theme on the nutritional and antioxidant capacity of some crop plants, nutritive antioxidants, the potential of engineering enhanced nutritional quality in crops and the contribution of nutritional and quality diet in enhancing quality of life and will be valuable to plant biologists, geneticists and nutritionists.


A Survey of Compression and Encryption Techniques for SMS[]


This Mobile communication is one of the fastest means of communication between one senders to other. Although the data send through the mobiles via SMS is easy and fast but it involves a lot of security because the SMS message may contains some useful data which can eavesdropped easily. Hence to secure such private data from un-authorized users, these SMS should be made secure by applying some encryption technique. But by applying encryption technique on these SMS data increase the length of the message, hence the wastage of bandwidth gets increase. So to utilize the bandwidth of these encrypted messages compression technique is required so that the length gets reduced and hence bandwidth gets utilized. Here in this paper a brief survey of all the encryption and compression techniques used for the security of SMS is given. Also one of the efficient techniques is proposed in the paper for the secure transmission of SMS messages from sender to receiver.


A Survey of RFID Authentication Protocols & Encryption Techniques[]


Security plays a vital role during the transmission of data in RFID devices. RFID technique is totally wireless network scenario so security of data gets more important although there are many authentication protocols implemented for the security of data from the tag to the reader. But here we are presenting a brief survey of the popular technologies which have implemented in this era. This survey gives an analytical view of the protocols.


A Secure Method of Dynamic Data Operation in cloud computing[]


In cloud computing, security is the biggest challenge and also a big issue to many cloud service providers and researchers. In cloud, two major challenges to service providers are - How we can give better data security and how can we keep user private data highly confidential? We design this protocol with the aim of solving these types of problems. Our protocol is based on the E.C.C method and Random sampling sobol sequence method. By using this method we can minimize the data loss and user becomes confident about the data security. This protocol is highly applicable for those users who have less resources and limited computing capability. For the cloud service provider, this protocol allows third part auditor or verifier to periodically verify the data integrity without receiving the original data again and again. This protocol concerns the data security, and confidentiality, integrity and it never reveals the data contents to the attackers. This protocol takes less time to detect the data corruption and data loss and verify the integrity of data by using Sobol method. The proposed protocol is very safe, secure and efficient and it provides same security level for dynamic data operation too.


Investigating the preparedness for Adaptive SCADA for efficiencies in energy utility companies[]


Current level of systems monitoring & strategic data mining in distribution of electrical power can be reorganized & restructured with a new understanding of ICT. The short comings of the current level of practicing using SCADA system encounter many of bottlenecks which need to be resolved with newer innovations. This paper is essentially investigating the current level of inefficiencies in practicing SCADA system for strategizing power distribution and creating a conceptual model for futuristic ICT integrated adaptive / self learning system. New power system demands energy quality and efficiency. Power system load or stability has risen for system operators all around the world. So there is a need for new control, monitoring and distribution strategies in SCADA.


Solar Led Street-light Using Motion Sensor And Single Axis Control[]


People have started moving towards the non-conventional sources of energy in this global warming period. Energy generated from these resources should be used in effective manner. As far as energy consumption of any device is one of the important concerns, the proper utilization has also its own importance. This paper represents the street-light structure with the sole-purpose of reducing energy-consumption. Basically, it consists of three parts, first trying to comprehend the concept of energy harnessing and then attempting to utilize it in utmost possible way. After that as a part of innovative application about how to optimize the power consumed using different electronics components like charge controller and sensor. Passive Infrared (PIR) sensor is used for the concerned project with a purpose of activation of led-street-light only when an object is passing through the subjected peripheral of street-light thereby saving energy for further usage and will be useful to prolong the utilization time of street-light. Solar energy is consumed maximum from sun through proper azimuth angle adjustment. The main aim of representing this paper is to deploy this project on commercial basis in market.


Behavioral study of diverse workforce towards various Health, safety & environment engagement strategies in upstream Oil & gas industries[]


The petroleum industry is an essential element of the economy and it is vital importance for the health and welfare of the mankind. By considering the hazardous nature of oil & gas projects / plants, various legislations / standards have promulgated for health, safety & environment protection. Oil & gas companies conduct its operations engaging multi-cultural diverse workforce due to its nature of operations & requirement of huge workforce. The workforce are highly diverse in nature and comes with different background, different languages, different skill set. Oil & Gas companies have established the HSE Management System and procedures based on the international regulations with a focus on the health, safety of workers and environment protection. It is altogether, a big challenge for upstream Oil & Gas Companies to achieve HSE (Health Safety & Environment) targets under diverse workforce. A study is conducted on the factors that are influencing the behavior of the diverse workforce and how Behavior Based Safety (BBS) programs will be effective under diverse workforce in enhancing HSE performance in upstream Oil & Gas industry. The paper will provide a comprehensive outcome on the behavioral study of engagement strategies of Diverse workforce in upstream oil & gas industries for enhancement of HSE performance.


Science of Soul is the Soul of Science[]


Science tell us how soul particle escape the universe to attain her Ultimate Light position. All theodes of Nature and fundamental physical constants determine the dimensionless difference between universe particle and soul particle by way of mass, less and energyless quantum theory of gravity.


Financial Planning Solution using IBM Cognos TM1[]


Financial planners and accountants are very comfortable with the use of spread sheets for all kinds of big and small businesses calculations. But the problem with having critical financial information kept in spreadsheets on individual desktops/laptops is a big risk as they also do not automatically integrate their information which leads to data inconsistencies and possible errors during data entry or copying and ultimately leads to loss of data and poor data quality.It also poses challenges in integration of information with other critical business applications of the enterprise for business forecasting and expense planning. The current business scenario is very dynamic and it requires very accurate and timely up-to-date information that is critical for strategic decision making. It is necessary for the business decision makers to try using new technologies to have integrated information for faster decision making for strategic advantage. Success in a dynamic marketplace depends on getting the right information to and from the right people at the right time. Success requires a powerful, flexible financial performance management solution that scales across a business to drive decision-making from the storeroom to the boardroom. This document provides an insight about the gaps of the existing procedures for expense planning and introduces a new integrated financial and expense planning solution from IBM.


Effect of Change in Orientation of Enhanced Dynamic Wedges on Radiotherapy Treatment Dose[]


Enhanced Dynamic Wedges are used in radiotherapy treatment to modify the dose distribution in target volume so that a desired dose distribution is achieved. The technique being highly advanced and computer controlled, requires enhanced degree of quality assurance. The investigation aimed to verify the constancy of treatment dose, when the orientation of the enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is reversed. It has been noted that there is a slight change in the monitor units with the reversal of EDW orientation. The calculated dose for two opposite orientations of EDW has been compared for 6 and 10 MV photon beams, by two different calculation systems (Pencil Beam & Collapsed Cone) to assure the quality of EDW technique as well as to increase its reliability. The difference in the calculated dose for Y1-IN and Y2-OUT orientation, for three different field sizes and all seven wedge angels, is very small and hence not enough to change the wedge factor significantly.


Versatile Ultra High Vacuum System for ION Trap Experiments: Design and Implementation[]


This paper presents an ultra high vacuum system for ion trap experiments which provides a pressure down to order of 10-12 torr. In order to host ion traps and trap chip carriers, the system includes a custom mounting bracket having above 90 electrical connections. Versatile optical access for many types of traps including those traps which require laser access via a through hole as well as for those traps which require laser beams parallel to the surface of the trap is ensured via nine viewports in the system. The chip carriers can be easily mounted onto the mounting bracket and can also be replaced with minimal turnaround time when required. For both through hole and parallel surface trap geometries, four atomic-ovens are mounted on the bracket inside the chamber to cater the atomic vapours for trapping purpose.


The Mystery of Crop Circle - Prehistoric Electromagnetic disc[]


The history of Crop Circle research shows that Crop Circle is considered as a sizeable pattern created by the flattening of a crop such as Wheat, Barley, rye, logos, Discs, etc. The crop circles are substantially increased throughout the world and so far about nearly 10,000 cases of crop circles were reported by many countries till today.


Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on EEG Using Various Fractal Dimension Methods[]


The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a record of the oscillations of brain electric potentials. The EEG provides a convenient window on the mind, revealing synaptic action that strongly co-relate with brain state. Fractal dimension, the measure of signal complexity can be used to characterize the physiological conditions of the brain. As the EEG signal is non linear, non stationary and noisy, non linear methods will be suitable for the analysis. In this paper various methods of fractal dimension analysis especially Higuichi's fractal method, Katz, and k-NN algorithms were applied to find the fractal dimension of EEG. The main attraction of fractal geometry is its ability to describe the irregular shape of natural features as well as other complex objects that traditional Euclidean geometry fails to analyze. EEGs of 10 volunteers were recorded at rest and on exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from mobile phones having different SAR values. Mobiles were positioned near the auricle and then near the Cz position. Fractal dimensions for all conditions are calculated using three algorithms. The FD of sample data sets were tested using F- test. Null hypothesis is rejected in 70% , 90%and 90% respectively for Higuichi, Katz and k_NN for data set prepared by keeping phone at Auricle position. Similarly null hypothesis is rejected in 75%, 90%and 90% respectively for Higuichi, Katz and k_NN for data set prepared by keeping phone at auricle position. The result shows that there are some changes in the FD while using mobile phone. The change in FD of the signal varies from person to person. The changes in FD show the variations in EEG signal while using mobile phone, which demonstrate transformation in the activities of brain due to radiation.



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