IJOART Volume 2, Issue 7, July 2013 Edition

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Biomedical Engineering Via Computational Intelligence[]

In this paper, we will review the effect of computational intelligence in biomedical engineering. Efficacy of computational intelligence demonstrated by use of a case study in this area. Computational intelligence has found applications in many areas; among them biomedical engineering has evolved into one of the major application areas of computational intelligence. In this paper, we give a brief review of biomedical applications of computational intelligence. The effectiveness of computational intelligence for medical diagnosis is demonstrated.

Unsteady MHD thermal diffusive, radiative and free convective flow past a vertical porous plate through non-homogeneous porous medium[]

The present paper deals with the analysis of unsteady free convection flow through a porous medium of variable permeability bounded by an infinite porous vertical plate in slip flow regime taking into account the radiation and temperature gradient dependent heat source. The flow is considered under the influence of magnetic field applied normal to the flow. The permeability of the porous medium and the suction velocity at the plate decreases exponentially with time about a constant mean. Approximate solutions for velocity and temperature fields are obtained using perturbation technique. The expressions for skin-friction and rate of heat transfer are also derived. The results obtained are discussed for cooling case (Gr > 0) of the plate. The effects of various physical parameters, encountered into the problem, on the velocity field are numerically shown through graphs while the effects on skin-friction and rate of heat transfer the numerically discussed through tables.

Decolourization of Dye Compounds by Selected Bacterial Strains isolated from Dyestuff Industrial Area[]

In the present study, the effluent and soil sample collected from dyestuff industrial area have been examined for microbial characteristics. Six bacterial strains, namely, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas putida, P. plecoglossicida, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, P. monteilii and Comamonas testosterone have been isolated and identified from dyestuff industrial area for the decolourization of selected dye compounds-Methyl Orange, Acid Orange, Malachite Green, Methylene Blue and Rhodamine B. Each compound was applied separately at 20 mg l-l in minimal salt medium to evaluate decolourization efficiency of the identified bacterial strains. The result shows that the selected bacterial strains have potential to decolourize dye compounds after 7 days of incubation period. The highest decolourization (91%) was found for the dye malachite green by Pseudomonas putida after 5 days of incubation. Comamonas testosterone was found to decolourize 85% of methyl orange after 7 days of incubation. P. putida was also found to decolourize 85% and 69% of acid orange II and methylene blue, respectively after 7 days of incubation. 56% of Rhodamine B was decolourized by P. monteilii after 3 days of incubation. The investigation proved that the microorganisms found in industrial area have ability to decolourize dye compounds. The potential of these bacteria can be exploited for the removal of residual dyes from the wastewater streams for environmental cleanup and restoration of ecosystem.

Rhizoremediation of pesticides: mechanism of microbial interaction in mycorrhizosphere[]

Rhizosphere bioremediation or rhizodegradation is the enhanced biodegradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants by root-associated bacteria and fungi under the influence of selected plant species. Use of selected vegetation and sound plant management practices, increase the total proportion of pollutant degraders in numbers and activity in the rhizosphere, leading to enhanced rhizodegradation of recalcitrant pesticides. Pesticides are capable of persisting in the environment and causing concerns for human health. The increasing costs and limited efficiency of traditional Physico-chemical treatments of soil have spurred the development of new remediation technologies. The use of plants and native microorganisms to degrade or remove pollutants has emerged as a powerful technology for in situ remediation. An understanding of the mechanisms of pollutant degradation in the rhizosphere environment is important for successful implementation of this technology. Recent studies have demonstrated that plants and rhizosphere associated microorganism produce pesticide-degrading enzymes that can mineralize different groups of pesticides and their metabolites with greater efficiency. Thus, rhizoremediation appears a very promising technology for the removal of pesticides from polluted soil. The aim of present review is to provide improved understanding of mechanism of microbial interaction in rhizosphere, which will help to translate the results of simplified bench scale and pot experiments to the full complexity and heterogeneity of field experiments with predictable remedial success.

Petrochemical Industrial Waste: Bioremediation Techniques An Overview[]

The petrochemical industry is one such major source of hazardous waste, produced during manufacture of Petrochemical products. These wastes are often released in the environment. Petrochemical Solid waste is generally associated with more hazardous constituents and accordingly carries a higher level of public health and environmental risk potential. In the present paper the petrochemical waste compound in particular Polycyclic Aromatic Hyrocarbons (PAH) were described as persistent pollutant in soil-water environment. The microbial sources which have been found and reported for PAH compound degradation have been cited with examples viz: potential species of Bacteria, species of Fungal and actinomycetes have been described for microbial degradation. The factors influencing microbial degradation including the influence of GMO's on bioremediation have been cited in the paper. This would serve as a bioremediation technique for microbial degradation of petrochemical waste.

Fault detection of Induction Motor using Envelope Analysis[]

This paper presents a new approach to diagnose broken rotor bar fault in induction motor using envelope analysis. A dynamic model of induction motor is developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Wavelet Transform and envelope analysis used to obtain statistical parameters maximum, median, minimum. Depending on these parameters, Support Vector Machine predicts the machine is healthy or not.

An optimized technique for test suite refinement in regression test[]

Quality is the prime goal of any software engineered product. Rigorous product development and testing is required to assure the quality of product. Regression testing is essential to ensure software quality. The software testers apply regression test suites to ensure that new or modified features do not regress the existing features. As new features are added, new test cases are generated to test the new functionality and add up to the existing test case pool, thus increasing the testing cost and the time of regression testing and this directly impacts the delivery and schedule of the product. Thus, there should be technique to deliver a quality product with decreased regression testing time and cost and when rigorous regression test is performed with reduced test suites it should produce the same quality product as the original test suites would produce. In order to address the above problem, two phase test suite refinement approach is proposed. The two phases of the proposed approach are Test Suite Minimization and Test Suite Prioritization. In Test Suite Minimization specification based minimization technique is used, whereas in Test Suite Prioritization risk based prioritization technique is used. This approach will enable us to achieve quality product with decreased regression testing time and cost, as it will generate the reduced test suites which will be equivalent to the original test suited for the product.


Sustainability in textile and Apparel industry has three facets Social, Economic and Environmental. Globalization has had a positive impact on textile exports of India. Countries producing and exporting textiles have increased investment in spinning and weaving equipment. Even though Developing countries have comparative cost advantage in domestic and international market still they are implementing bringing structural changes to meet the needs of the global stringent buyer.


Voice disorders are universal problems & have significant affect on the patients' emotional, psychological, physical, social, personal & professional well being. This is a prospective study done in the department of Otorhinolaryngology, Silchar Medical College & Hospital from June 2012 to July 2013. Thirty consecutive dysphonic patients with benign voice disorders underwent a course of voice therapy with or without undergoing surgical procedures. Pre therapy-versus-post therapy comparisons were made of self-ratings of Voice Handicap Index, Auditory-Perceptual Ratings, as well as, Visual -Perceptual Evaluations of laryngeal images. Voice therapy is an essential & effective tool to manage benign voice disorders, and provide both objective and patient-centered outcomes. To be precise, the role of voice therapy is not only therapeutic but it also helps to encourage healthy voice habits & prevent recurrence of disease after a very delicate surgery.


Universe is filled with Energy - Not for Consumption but for Conversion. Blessing Waves are one form of Energy for Conversion in many levels. An expression of blessing, is a wave of actions in sound or in mind. It functions like a wave to cause a series of actions and reactions giving appropriate results in time. Our very life is a blessing. We must feel highly grateful to those who are responsible for our present life. Many research studies have found that having good relationship is one of the most important skills of successful leaders. In this way Vethathiri Maharishi (1911-2006) in his SKY practices, he said, it is characterized by the personality of the sender in shape, quality and speed. Blessings are Good wishes, we give and as well receive not only from the human kind but also from birds, animals, plants etc... In this view ,the aim of this study is to prove.


Human's especially handicapped people it is difficult to operate the system. This paper deals with interface of system and a people with their eye blinking. Here we can find out the eye blinking of any person who can operate the system with a detection function. By using this detection function we can estimate the position of an eye blink. The measurement of an eye blink parameter provides required information for eye controlled systems where human machine interface is needed.

Therapeutic interventions in Cancer[]

Cancer metabolism is a new and exciting field of biology that provides a novel approach to treating cancer. Cancer cell metabolism is marked by profound changes in nutrient requirements and usage to ensure cell proliferation and survival. In cancer, this metabolic reprogramming is coordinated with proliferative signaling and regulated by the same oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes to ensure efficient proliferation. Glycolysis (sugar metabolism), fatty acid metabolism and autophagy (self metabolism) are three pathways shown to play a critical role in cancer metabolism. Identifying and disrupting certain enzymes in these and perhaps other, metabolic pathways provides a powerful intervention point for discovery and development of cancer therapeutics.


Fibrous dysplasia is a developmental tumor like condition in which normal bone is replaced by excessive proliferation of cellular fibrous connective tissue intermixed with irregular bony trabeculae. May involve one or several bones and consists of one or more foci of fibro osseous tissue within the matrix of the affected bone. Patient presents with bone pain, deformities & pathologic fractures. a case of monostotic fibrous dysplasia of maxillary bone has been reported in a 22 year old female . A review of the literature and management comprising of imaging and surgery for the patient are discussed.

Influence of Pre reading And Pre writing Abilities of Pre school Students Intervention on Knowledge And Teaching Skills of Their Teachers[]

A research study was carried out on randomly selected 40 preschool teachers from 10 private preschools of Parbhani town. For enhancing pre-reading and pre-writing abilities of preschool students, the intervention was designed and launched for educating the preschool teachers comprising three days intensive training. It included demonstrations on various techniques, case studies, exhibition and follow up visits once in two months, telephonic talks etc for refining these teachers' knowledge and teaching skills. To study the influence of intervention, knowledge and teaching skills of teachers with regard to child education were reassessed after 9 months period. The collected data of pre and post tests were compared, analyzed and discussed. The adopted practices by preschool teachers regarding pre- reading and pre- writing skills indicated dearth need of creating awareness among teachers as well as parents about the scientific methods of teaching early childhood children so as to reduce ill effects of it on their development. After receiving intervention on ECCE, highly significant improvement was recorded in the knowledge and teaching skills of teachers about developing pre- reading and pre -writing abilities in preschool students.

On Upper And Lower d-Precontinuous Fuzzy Multifunctions[]

In this paper a new type of fuzzy multifunction termed as d-precontinuous fuzzy multifunction has been introduced and studied. Some characterizations and several properties of this multifunction are obtained. We also characterize this multifunction by newly define fuzzy neighbourhood of a fuzzy set in a fuzzy topological space. Finally, in the last section some applications of this fuzzy multifunction are obtained.


India is developing as potential silk producing country among many silk producing countries of the globe. But, global silkworm industry, which had been focusing on silk production previously, switched its market for supplying food supplements and raw materials for medicine. Since then, it has been producing products, such as silkworm powder for reducing blood glucose levels, silkworm dongchunghacho (cordyceps), which is effective to cure cancer and strengthen the immune system, silk cosmetics, silk soap, silk toothpaste and ice cream of mulberry leaf that encourage the growth of silkworm farmers in some Asian countries particularly in Korea. Silkworm is an insect of which every part can be used for all different purposes. Therefore, the sericulture to produce only silk fabric now has been changed into the functional sericulture of a new paradigm to relieve the patients as well as to increase the farmers' income dramatically. Those functional sericulture will be further developed and finally reborn into a real biotechnology-based sericulture in the future. In addition, silver agriculture and experiential studies with sericulture are going to attract the retirees in cities and help children�s studies. This review article will focus more on sericulture as food supplements, cosmetics, and raw materials for medicine.

Study on frequency of Depression and factors affecting mood in women Of age 18-66 years residing in Karachi using Patient Health Questionnaire-9[]

Background: Women in this part of world being less educated are prone to develop mental and physical disorders as they are unable to cope up with daily stresses of life. Hence, there is a need to find out factors related to depression in them. Objective: To study the frequency of Depression and factors affecting it in working and household women (18 to 66 years) of Karachi using Patient Health Questionnaire-99 Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on women (18 to 66 years) of Karachi. Sample size was 454 (227 household and 227 working women). Women underwent a face to face interview; housewives were interviewed at home and working women in their offices. Results: Overall frequency of depression found in women of Karachi was 38.7%. Our working women 91/227(40.09%) were found to be more depressed than household women81/227(35.7%). Conclusion: Study showed that more working women are depressed as compared to housewives, as was expected. The problems they faced were family issues, financial problems and extra workload

A Study on Trend of Export of Natural Stones from India to Various Countries[]

India is a major exporter of natural stone, which is the second largest foreign exchange earner for India besides iron ore in minerals category. The EOU scheme, which was introduced in 1980, helped the industry to modernize as it opened a window to usher in latest technologies for stone processing. India has immense potential for growth of exports in this sector. The purpose of this research paper is an attempt to study the trend of export of natural stones from India to various countries on the basis of its past export performances to these countries. The present study is a secondary data based. Finnish stone companies export 90% of the stone production and have a strong experience of the global business environment.

Strain improvement of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes MHF ENV for biodegradation of dibutyl phosphate: Strategies and Methods[]

Bioremediation of dibutyl phosphate (DBP), an organophosphorus flame retardant and plasticizer has been studied using the bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes MHF ENV. Different methods have been developed for the improvement of the strain of P. pseudoalcaligenes for bioremediation of DBP viz. adaptation and mutation. DBP degradation was noticeably enhanced after pre-adaptation of the bacterium to 500 mg/l of DBP. Random UV mutagenesis was induced in the culture and the mutated culture was checked for its efficacy in DBP degradation at 500 mg/l. Different parameters like change in cell count, BOD and COD were monitored during degradation studies. UV mutated culture was found to degrade about 90% of 500 mg/l of DBP as compared to 30% by the pre-adapted culture over a period of 6 d. Thus, the mutated strain exhibited three-fold better DBP degradation than the adapted culture. UV mutagenesis of P. pseudoalcaligenes contributed significantly to strain improvement with highest DBP degradation potential at high DBP concentrations of up to 500 mg/l, and thus would be applicable for remediation of DBP contaminated sites.


Increasing evidences revealed that melatonin plays a major role over the insulin secretion and sensitization in the normal objects. This research to explore the role of melatonin in the Born Blind subjects and it is compared with normal vision people. Out of 503 Born Blind Subjects with a age group of 31-60 years with 407 males & 96 females were included for study. On analyzing the statistics of Waist-Hip Ratio 68.4% people were >1 & 26.2% people having diastolic BP (>90) 18.3% having systolic BP (>140) Analyzing the Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) and Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS), 95.2% having FBS <110 and 95.1% having PPBS <140. Astonishingly 96.4% having high values of Serum Melatonin >15pg In normal vision people with same age, around 70% having diabetes(T2DM) having their melatonin level <5pg. This study reveals the role of pineal gland and the hormone melatonin, will be an useful tool to detect T2DM in early stage.

Autonomous District Councils and Tribal Development in North East India: A Critical Analysis[]

The Autonomous District Councils are set up to provide the tribal people of North East India with a simple administrative set up to safeguard their customs and ways of lives and to provide autonomy in the management of their affairs. The Autonomous District Councils not only give the hill people of North East India training on local self-government but also bring in faster economic development by associating people with the developmental works through their representatives in the Autonomous District Councils. The Autonomous District Councils have been empowered to enact legislations for the welfare and development of the hill tribal people of North East India. The Autonomous District Councils have full autonomy to legislate and administer on subjects like Land Revenue, Primary Education, Customary Laws etc. assigned to it under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.

Effect of Drought Stress on the Physiology and Yield of the Pakistani Wheat Germplasms[]

Drought stress is the most important factor and ever-growing problem limiting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity worldwide. Wheat has physiological mechanisms that enable them to adapt drought stress and this adaptation may vary among different genotypes. This study was performed to investigate the physiological responses in twelve wheat genotypes under drought stress to identify drought tolerant genotypes. Stress was imposed by growing the genotypes under four irrigation treatments (T1-380 ml, T2-190 ml, T3-126 ml and T4-95 ml) with each fifteen days interval. The results revealed that electrolytes leakage was increased and other physiological characteristics such as turgidity, relative leaf water contents and plant yield were decreased during the increase in drought stress. The Tatara, ZAS-08, ZAS-42 and Ghaznavi-98 wheat genotypes exhibited the normal physiology and were considered as drought tolerant genotypes. The drought tolerant genotypes specified in this study will be grown in rain fed regions in order to improve the crop productivity and will be used in wheat breeding programs to produce a stress tolerant genotype.


In Algebra, Division of matrices is done by Inverse-Multiplication Divisor Matrix with Dividend Matrix. There are two different methods are possible to divide two square or rectangular matrices. The Probability of Matrices Division is 0.5 plus. The overall concept of this paper is Division of Matrices is possible.

Biochemical and Microbiological evaluation of the water samples collected from different areas of Swabi, Pakistan[]

The population of Pakistan has increased with a quick ratio, and sewage system is not good, so the contaminated water of homes and gutters is directly absorbed in soil. With that lots of Microorganism also absorbed in soil which result in contamination and poor quality of the drinking water. The water samples were taken from different locations of Swabi and from different sources such as lake water, tap water, and spring water. In total, 33 samples were collected for bacteriological test, to find out which bacteria are present in it. Different tests have been done for different bacteria i.e. coliform, Fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli (E.coli). Out of 33, 22 samples were fit for drinking, and the remaining 11 samples were not fit for drinking which contained tap water and lake water. This study revealed that in most of the villages in Swabi, the water quality is good than other nearby districts and major cities which reflects the awareness of the local population about how to maintain, store and use the water for drinking purposes. Other reason could be the less number of the waste water sources in Swabi in comparison to the well populated cities.


The present study was aimed to investigate the drinking water quality of the beautiful valley of Buner which was always crucial regarding public health. The quality assessments of the drinking water which includes the natural springs (Cheena-in local language) were carried out by determining, total coliform bacteria, total plate count, total fecal coliform and E. coli. These tests were performed to investigate about the presence of the bacte-ria in 12 samples collected from different areas of the district Buner. After screening with several tests, eight samples were found fit and four samples were unfit which were classified based on the standards of World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the presence of microbes was confirmed by biochemical tests. The water samples collected from Union council Gul Bandi were fit for drinking and the samples collected from other areas of Buner were contaminated with animal and human disposal wastes. Interestingly, the springs water which are actually the main drinking sources for those living in hilly areas were found free of microbes and fit for drinking. This also revealed the role of pure water in keeping good health of the population inhabiting in mountains. However, springs water when fall down in plain areas were reported contaminated and the reason could be the leakage in distribution pipelines and unawareness of local community about water pollution. The poor sanitation of gutters waste water and solid wastes produced by humans and animals is interrupting the pu-rity of the natural water and is alarming for the community to improve their sanitation system and save the natu-ral beauty of the district Buner.


Homemade brews and the raw materials used can be a major source of nitrate and nitrite in human diet. Because of the potential health hazards result in. high intake of nitrate and nitrite, determination of these ions content in Homemade brews and the raw materials used. Sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats The aim of this research was to determine the concentration of nitrite in Homemade brews and the raw materials sampled from eleven stations in Nairobi County - Kenya. So, a total of one hundred and thirty two (132) home-made alcoholic beverages, forty eight (48) water and eighteen (18) raw materials samples were analyzed for nitrite. These were analyzed using, a SHADZU (Model No. UV-2550) UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The measurement was based on ISO Method (N0.6635). The detection limit and analitation limit of nitrite determination were found to be 0.93 µg/ml and 2.82 µg/ml respectively. The recommended maximum contamination levels set by Kenya Bureau of Standards/World Health Organization for nitrate in alcohols is nitrite 0.003 mg/l Data has been analyzed with p value and ANOVA. According to the results, the average of nitrite content in all of the samples was more than standard limits. Homemade brews and the raw materials used had significantly higher nitrite differences (p<0.05).

Comparative Analysis of Hop-to-Hop and End-to-End Secure Communication[]

End-to-End secure communication between sensor and sink is important in network communication management. In majority cases End-to-End secure communication is largely ignored since most of us give importance to Hop-to-Hop communication. End-to-End secure communication protocol in randomly deployed wireless sensor network is based on methodology called differentiated key pre-distribution [19]. Here, the main idea is to distribute different number of keys to different sensors to speed up the resilience of certain links. To determine the optimum protocol parameters in the End-to-End Secure communication, the theoretical analysis is necessary and it is being discussed in this paper. It is observed that End-to-End solution can provide secure communication between the sensor nodes and the sink in the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The theoretical analysis was practically attempted to prove its work and same been discussed in this paper.

Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane with catalytic thermal decomposition[]

The complex chemical hydride, Ammonia Borane (NH3BH3, AB) is a hydrogen rich compound. It is a promising hydrogen source for applications using Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) due to hydrogen content. It has reasonably lower operating temperatures compared with other solid state hydriding materials. At present AB is an expensive disposable source which in its pure form releases one mole of hydrogen at around 110°C. This temperature is much higher than the operating temperature of PEMFC (~80°C). At the operating temperatures of the fuel cell, the slow kinetics of pure AB is a deterrent which provides enough scope for experimentation. The paper is the result of experimental thermolysis effort by using nano-nickel as a catalyst with pure Ammonia Borane. The neat and catalyzed AB isothermal decomposition and kinetic behavior are illustrated through the experimental results obtained under various conditions. The focus of experimentation is to increase the rate and extent of release of hydrogen at lower temperatures.

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