IJOART Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2013 Edition

 Journal Front Page  Index file

A Study On Complementary Feeding Practices In Jammu, Kashmir And Ladakh Regions []

The appropriate time for the initiation of semi-solids is 6 months and/or early and delayed initiation can prove deleterious. The introduction of semi-solids before six months of age puts infants at risk of malnutrition because other foods are nutritionally inferior to breast milk. This practice can also increase their exposure to pathogens and thus put them at a greater risk of getting infection. Timely complementary feeding rate in present study was 30.9%.

Evaluation of a Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector[]

Conventional energy resources are exhaustive and there is a need for renewable energy resources for sustainable development. Solar energy promises to be a potentially alternative energy resource for world growing economy. Solar energy can be harnessed through photochemical, photovoltaic and photothermal processes. In any of these processes, the electromagnetic radiation of the solar energy is put in a useful form as energy being vital to economic and human development. This paper presented the evaluation of the performance of a passive flat-plate solar collector. The research investigated the variations of top loss heat transfer coefficient with absorber plate emittance; and air gap spacing between the absorber plate and the cover plate. The effects of these parameters on the performance of the solar collector were also investigated. Results of data obtained from the thermosyphon flat plate solar water heater developed by the National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), Nsukka, Nigeria were used in the analysis. The procedure for the evaluation of the top loss heat transfer coefficient and the efficiency of the collector plate is iterative in nature; hence computer program written in Visual Basic was used to simplify the solution.

Effects Of Local And Industrial Adsorbents On Biogas Generation From Cow Dung[]

The effect of local and industrial adsorbents on biogas production from cow dung was investigated. The result revealed that a total weekly mean volume of 5,055cm3 5,782cm3, 5,652.5cm3 and 3,972.5cm3 of biogas were produced by the mixtures of cow dung and local charcoal, cow dung and activated charcoal, cow dung and kaolin, cow dung and pectin respectively as compared to the control that gave a total weekly mean volume of 3,827.5cm3 of biogas. While total weekly mean methane production of 4,737cm3, 4,665cm3, 4,389cm3, 3,665.5cm3 by volume were obtained from cow dung and kaolin mixture, cow dung and activated charcoal, local charcoal and cow dung, pectin and cow dung mixture respectively in comparison to 3,597.5cm3 total weekly mean volume of methane production by cow dung only (control) other physiochemical parameter of cow dung were determined and they include moisture, ash, total solid, volatile solid, organic Carbon Nitrogen and crude protein content. Overall result for the 10 weeks retention period indicated that biogas yield can be enhanced by local and industrial adsorbent and analysis of the remnant indicated that it could be used as a substrate for plant growth..

Study of the awareness about "Corporate Governance" and "Corporate Social Responsibility" of banks among bank's customers and employees.[]

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an idea and associated actions taken up by the business organizations who believe that there is a responsibility to "give back" to the society and the environment in which the business organizations is operating.

Common Random Fixed Point Theorems In Symmetric Spaces[]

In this paper we obtain common random fixed point theorems for weakly compatible random operators under generalized contractive condition in symmetric space. In this paper we generalized the result of Beg and Abbas [4].

Dielectric, Magnetic, Electric and Structural Properties of Ni0.2-Cox-Zn0.8-x Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-Gel Auto Combustion Method[]

Nickel substituted CoxZn0.8-x Fe2O4 (x=0.2, 0.5 and 0.6) ferrite were synthesized by Sol-gel auto combustion method. The powders were sintering at 400oc and 700oc for 2hrs to densify properly. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR and Magnetic properties. The XRD used to analyze phase structure and lattice parameters. The FTIR spectra confirmed that synthesis material is ferrite. Morphology of ferrite powders were investigated by using SEM. Porosity of synthesis ferrite is measured. The saturation magnetization increases with increasing Co-Zn concentration. Resistivity of ferrite material is may be decreases due to vary concentration of Co and Zn. Dielectric Properties show the variation in the dielectric loss factor of Ni-Co-Zn ferrite sintered at various temperatures.

Use of Balanced Scorecard in a Senitation Company in Southern Brazil: Analysis of User's Perception[]

The objective of this article is to analyze the users' perception of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) tool in a sanitation company in Southern Brazil, in the development of its activities and in the use of its tools. In the first moment was developed a biblio-graphic survey, identifying the perspectives of the BSC joined the organizational strategy. Subsequently it was held a field research in September of 2012 with ten employers in the Guarapuava unity, where it was seek to evaluate the level of knowledge of those in the use of this management resource. The company must worry about the employers, in a way that these can be tuned for the company's growth. For this the organization needs a management that exceed the expectations of its contributors, aggregating motivation in the search of knowledge and commitment in projects that help them professionally and benefit the society in the search of learning and growth results. The organization uses a management that serves desires of its team and the reasons in the strategies formulations and on the plan to achieve the goals. It is indispensable the disclosure of the information for all the organization sectors so it brings the develop of ideas, structure innovations and a management that cultivates the participation of organizational activities.

Derivation of Siva's Constant 'K' of Physics[]

Siva's Constant 'K' is a constant used in the Equations of 'Double Relativity Effect and Siva's Theory of Gravitation'. By means of mathematics it is not possible to solve all the equations, so by means of a logical physical theory Siva's constant 'K' has been solved and calculated. Siva's Constant is a very important constant for cosmological concepts like 'Heart of the God Model of the universe, Film theory of the universe'. Further research on this new approach of cosmology the Siva's Constant has been modified slightly. Theoretical value of Hubble's constant is calculated to satisfy all the parameters of this new aproch have been concluded by this theory.

pH Neutralization In Cstr Using Modelreference Neural Network And Fuzzy Logic Adaptive Controlling Schemes[]

Control of the pH neutralization process plays an important role in many applications. Model reference adaptive controller base controlling is applied for pH process and intelligent controller such as fuzzy and neural network is added along with this adaptive controller in order to improve the response. A comparative study of these 3 controller was done in this paper.

Design and fabrication of an experimental set up for ac Susceptibility measurement of LaxSr1-xMnO3[]

An Experimental set up for ac susceptibility measurement is designed and fabricated. The design consists of a primary coil and a pair of secondary coils. The set-up is based on the phenomenon of "mutual induction". The sample is directly inserted inside in one of the secondary coil.LaxSr1-xMnO3 is prepared by auto combustion sol gel method. Sample was characterized by XRD and it is found to be single phase. The measurement is done with the help of a lock in amplifier which was interfaced with a computer. A sharp rise in susceptibility is observed at 363K.

The Effect of Investment in Telecommunication on Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria[]

This study examines the impact of real investment in telecommunication on economic growth in Nigeria. The study includes labour employed, capital stock, real investment in telecommunication and electricity supply to be the regressors and real economic growth to be the regressand using a time series data from 1980 - 2010. The study's model is based on Solow's augmented growth theory where labour, capital and technology are the sole determinants of economic growth. Thus, economic growth is estimated through classical least squares and fully modified ordinary least squares techniques - cointegration and error correction model. The finding shows that labour employed, capital stock, real investment in telecommunication and electricity supply are statistically significant to economic growth in the short run equilibrium in Nigeria. Therefore, positive economic growth is attainable when efficient and well coordinated policies are implemented on labour productivity, price management, investment promotion and constant electricity supply.

Effect of Paper Paste on the Calorific Value of Sawdust Briquette[]

The problem constituting by waste paper is enormous. How to dispose this waste is becoming worrisome and it's generated every day. Although waste paper is used for various other things, there are still abundant of it. Since both paper and sawdust are wood products, as sawdust is used for briquettes, paper also can be used. This is one of the ways of reducing the nuisance constitute by these wastes. Mixing waste paper with sawdust briquettes could lead to better briquette performance and cost-effectiveness making this fuel more attractive to both producers and consumers. This leads to the investigation of the effect of paper paste on the calorific value of solid briquettes. In this work briquettes were produced out of the mixtures of sawdust from Teak, Masonia, Iroko and Afara woods. This mixture of sawdust was sieved into three different grain seizes A (1.2 mm), B (1.15 mm) and C (0.75 mm). To these were added two grain seizes (1.18 mm and 1.70 mm) of palm kernel shell and paper pastes in various ratios. Sixteen samples were produced from each grain size of the sawdust; hence there are forty-eight different ratios of sawdust: palm kernel shell; paper paste. Five each of the samples were tested and average values recorded. The experimental results show that, as the percentage by weight of paper paste increases, both percentage fixed carbon and ash content reduce. Also both the volatile matters and the calorific values increase with increase percentage paper paste. However, it was noted that as the paper paste exceeded 25% there was a decrease in the calorific value. Hence for optimum performance and calorific value, the appropriate percentage paper paste should range between 20% and 25%.

Status of Industrial Settlement of Gurgaon and Faridabad (NCR, Haryana)[]

Development of a country can be judged through the development of its economy. The country having strong economy is considered as a developed country. Earlier Indian economy was totally dependent on agriculture but now the interest of our economy shifts toward industry. Industry is a place where raw material is converted to finished product but Industrialization is essentially a process of technological innovation which leads to improved organization, specialization, division of labour, which has inherent impulses of faster, continuous and cumulative growth (Hermansen, 1971 vide Prasad, 1974). Industrialization play vital and crucial role in the economic development of a Country. Earlier Industrialization was very slow in India but now with the passage of time it speeds up.But there is significant development in National Capital Region of Haryana. Industrial development is taking place at a very high pace in Gurgaon and Faridabad as compared to other parts of Haryana state. In light of the above, the present paper would mainly focus on status of industrial settlement of Gurgaon and Faridabad (NCR, Haryana).

Comparative Study of the Performance of Flat Solar Panels[]

In a context where the price of fossil fuels keeps on rising and the environment continues to deteriorate, energy saving is a priority. Faced with this situation, man is interested in renewable energy sources first and foremost solar energy. This article presents one of the applications of solar energy. It is about the production of hot sanitary water by a solar water heater. Six types of plane solar panels have been studied. This study lies within a perspective of comparing performance of these different types of sensors, focusing on the development and use of simulation tools. MATLAB simulation was used to compare the performance of different solar panels. The plotted curves show that the performance increases with the mass flow of the coolant, whereas the outlet temperature of the fluid goes down at the same rate.

Concentration of Heavy Metals in Soil from an Irrigated Farmland in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria[]

Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in (mg/kg) were determined in topsoil from irrigated farmland around Kawo area in Kaduna, a town in Northern Nigeria using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The soil physico-chemical parameters, pH and percentage organic matter (% OM) content were also determined. The soil pH showed alkaline which ranged from 6.50-7.90 while the soil percentage organic matter ranged from 0.80-1.86 %. Concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in all the soils samples ranged from 0.1-4.5, 0.50-30.50, 3.2-13.5, 4.0-28.00 and 5.5-49.7 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The mean concentrations of soil samples studied were found to follow the decreasing orders; Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. There is correlation between soil physico-chemical parameters and metals such as Cu and Pb in the soil samples. The concentrations of heavy metals are within tolerable levels except for Cd. The slightly high level of Cd could be ascribed to lubricating oils as well as the burning of old tyres that are frequently dumped close to the site.

Review on Sample Preparation for Drug Discovery[]

This article includes various methods of sample preparation of mammalian plasma by using different approaches. In each step of sample preparation the necessary measures should be investigated to determine the extent to which environmental, matrix, material, or procedural variables can affect the estimation of analyte in the matrix from the time of collection of the material up to and including the time of analysis. The main object of these measures is to remove matrix component present in plasma and make sample more efficient for analysis. Here five methods of sample preparation were described according to its utility towards sample preparation and efficacy of analysis

Sensitivity Analysis of Head Loss Equations on the Design of Improved Irrigation On-Farm System In Egypt[]

Improved Irrigation Project (IIP) in old lands of Delta Egypt has a great benefit of increasing the irrigation efficiency in on-farm system. Improved irrigation Project (IIP) in on-farm system contains designing low pressure pipeline network. This paper has two objectives; first objective is to study the effect of using Darcy-Weisbach equation for head loss calculation in IIP instead of using Hazen-William equation on the design results. Exact Friction coefficient required for Dary-Weisbach equation was developed in this paper using Newton-Raphson method. The second objective is to study the effect of hydrant discharge (20 l/s, or 30 l/s) on the design results. It is concluded from this paper that, using Darcy-Weisbach equation with hydrant discharge of 20 l/s is better than using Hazen-William equation with hydrant discharge 20 l/s or 30 l/s for the following reasons; getting less water level inside the stand tank, getting less civil work's cost, getting less filling and pipeline costs, and getting less total system cost without including pumps cost into consideration, so it is recommended to use darcy-Weisbach equation with hydrant discharge of 20 l/s in the design of improved irrigation system in old lands of Delta Egypt.

Energy Saving In Wireless Sensor Network Using Optimal Selective Forwarding Protocol[]

Energy consumption is a primary anxiety in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Sensor node batteries cannot be easily refilled and nodes have a finite lifetime. One of the major issues in wireless sensor networks is developing an energy-efficient routing protocol to improve the overall lifetime of the network. Several routing protocols are used in WSN for transforming the messages. In epidemic routing the messages are blindly stored and forwarded to all neighboring nodes. This may contain packet loss and energy consumption. To avoid the packet loss and to reduce energy consumption the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) algorithm with optimal selective forwarding protocol is used. The DSR protocol is a simple and efficient routing protocol. DSR is specifically designed for Wireless sensor Network. In DSR each node (sensors) maintains a routing table. If the route is available in the table the optimal selective forwarding protocol schemes are applied. And also the forwarding schemes are designed for three different cases to improve the lifetime of sensor node batteries such as when Sensors give maximum importance for their own transmitted messages, Sensors give maximum importance for messages that arrive at sink successfully and Sensors give maximum importance for retransmitted messages to one of its neighbors.

Comparative analysis of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activity in haematological tissues of vertebrates[]

Blood and bone marrow evaluation is very important means to analyze physiological conditions of mammals as well as other group of vertebrates. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV, a serine peptidase with N-terminal exopeptidase activity, is an important indicator of hematopoietic environment. DPP-IV enzyme activity was measured in blood and bone marrow tissue of rohu (Labeo rohita), toad (Bufo melanostictus); calotes (Calotes versicolor); chicken (Galus galus); and mice (Mus musculus). The optimum temperature for enzyme reaction in both tissues was 37oC. In both blood and haematopoietic tissues DPP-IV activity were linear upto 20 minutes of time. Both blood and bone marrow cell DPPIV displayed classical Michaelis Menten kinetics with a variable Vmax and Km values in different animal groups. The proteolytic activity of the enzyme was inhibited in a concentration dependent manner by a specific inhibitor diprotin A, which indicate the presence of DPPIV in all the samples with maximum inhibition in mice blood and bone marrow samples. We have found a significant variation in enzyme activity in different vertebrate groups the significance of which is still unknown.

Understand Your Stakeholders []

In the last decades of the 20th century, the word "stakeholder" has become more commonly used to mean a person or organization that has a legitimate interest in a project or entity. In discussing the decision-making process for institutions - including large business corporations, government agencies, and non-profit organizations - the concept has been broadened to include everyone with an interest (or "stake") in what the entity does. This includes not only its vendors, employees, and customers, but even members of a community where its offices or factory may affect the local economy or environment. In this context, "stakeholder" includes not only the directors or trustees on its governing board (who are stakeholders in the traditional sense of the word) but also all persons who "paid in" the figurative stake and the persons to whom it may be "paid out". We need to work out ways and means by which we balance the demands of all stakeholders and fulfill them. It is mainly the way in which we deal, the transparency in our dealing, the sincere approach we make towards understanding the requirements and to fulfill them, the speed of response and the smile on face. A timely smile can reduce half the dissatisfaction.

Customer Relationship Management and Organizational Performance in Malaysian Healthcare Industry[]

The healthcare industry in various countries around the world is in different stages of their organizational performance. The importance of CRM practices in the achievement of organizational performance has been highlighted in many studies. The purposes of this study are to propose Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Organizational Performance (OP) model for Malaysian healthcare industry. As a review, these researchers are to investigate what does CRM contributes to OP in Malaysian healthcare industry. Based on the proposed conceptual model, research hypothesis is being developed. The research concludes with suggested future research work.

Heavy Metal Content in Vegetables from an Irrigated Farmland in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria.[]

A total of 17 vegetable samples were collected; 7 pumpkin leaves (Telferia occidentalis), 6 bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina) and 4 pumpkin leave from control site. Concentration ranges of pumpkin leaves were 0.1-0.30 mg/kg, 1.5-6.20 mg/kg, 1.3-3.10 mg/kg, 4.0-15.30 mg/kg and 4.1-10.20 mg/kg dry weight for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn respectively while for bitter leave the concentration ranges from 0.3-1.00 mg/kg, 2.0-9.50 mg/kg, 0.8-3.40 mg/kg, 4.4-7.50 mg/kg and 5.8-12.70 mg/kg dry weight for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn respectively. The mean concentrations of pumpkin leave samples studied were found to follow the decreasing orders; Pb > Zn > Cr > Cu > Cd respectively. However, for bitter leave the mean concentration decreases in this order; Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd. There is correlation between some metals in both vegetable samples. The concentrations of heavy metals are within tolerable levels except Pb in pumpkin leaves that have values which are higher than the WHO/EU recommended values. The slightly high level of Pb in the pumpkin vegetable could be attributed to deposits of the metal from vehicle emissions.

Role And Importance Of Sufism In Modern World[]

Sufism is derived from the Arabic word "Suf" which means "wool", refer to the garments worn by early Sufis. Some says it is derived from "Suffa" or "bench" referring to a group of poor Muslims living at the time with Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H), known as the people of bench. There are different views about Sufism when it was came into existence, most scholars are of the opinion that the term Sufism was first coined by a Sufi known as Abu Hashim Kufi. Whether the theories are correct or not but the fact that Sufism is not something that can be separated from Islam, although the word may have used little later. After Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the imams and their sheikhs spread the knowledge of Sufism. During the sixth and seventh century of the Islamic era, the way Sufism reached the height of its popularity, and Sufis like Ibn Arabi and Rumi wrote important books about the mysteries of gnosis and the journey towards god.

Food and feeding habit of the critically endangered catfish Rita rita (Hamilton) from the Padda river in the north-western region of Bangladesh[]

Food and feeding habits of Rita rita collected from the Padda river in the north-western region of Bangladesh were investigated by examining the gastro-intestine contents of 744 specimens collected from May, 2010 to April, 2011. Their diet consisted of a broad spectrum of food types but crustaceans were dominant, with copepodes constituting 20.73%, other non-copepode crustaceans constituted 12.01%. The next major food group was insect (15.97%), followed by mollusks (14.76%), teleosts (12.98%) and fish eggs (8.608%). Food items like Teleosts, mollusks, insects and shrimps tended to occur in the stomachs in higher frequencies with an increase in R. rita size (up to 30.5 - 40.5cm), while fish eggs, copepods and non-copepode crustaceans tended to increase in stomachs at sizes between 10.5-20.5cm. Analysis of monthly variations in stomach fullness indicated that feeding intensity fluctuated throughout the year with a low during June and August corresponding to the spawning period.

Super six problems on Primes []

In this paper, we discuss some investigations on primes by proofs. We can see many problems and observations during the classroom teaching. With my outmost interest, whatever observations/note took place in my regular reading/teaching, few of them answered by proofs with good analysis.

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